As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 24, 2021
 
Registration No. 333-______
  

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
Form S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
Lowell Farms Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
British Columbia, Canada
 
0100
 
NA
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
19 Quail Run Circle
Suite B
Salinas, California 93907
Telephone: (831) 998-8214
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
Mark Ainsworth
Chief Executive Officer
Lowell Farms Inc.
19 Quail Run Circle
Suite B
Salinas, California 93907
Telephone: (831) 998-8214
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Please send a copy of all communications to:
Kenneth G. Alberstadt
Akerman LLP
1251 Avenue of the Americas
47th Floor
New York, New York 10020
Telephone: (212) 880 3817
 
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Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box: [X]
 
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer [  ]
Accelerated filer [  ]
Non-accelerated filer [  ]
Smaller reporting company [X]
 
Emerging growth company [X]
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act [  ]
________________
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
Title of each class of securities to be registered
 
Amount to be registered(1)
 
 
Proposed maximum offering price per share
 
 
Proposed maximum aggregate offering price
 
 
Amount of registration fee
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subordinate Voting Shares, par value $0.0001 per share(2)
  22,643,678 
 $1.23(3)
 $27,851,723.94 
 $3,038.63 
 
    
    
    
    
Total
    
    
 $27,851,723.94 
 $3,038.63 
 
(1) 
 In the event of a stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction involving our common stock, the number of shares registered shall automatically be adjusted to cover the additional shares of common stock issuable pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2) 
Represents Subordinate Voting Shares registered for resale by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus.
(3) 
Estimated in accordance with Rule 457(c) and (h) under the Securities Act, solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee on the basis of an assumed price of $1.23 per share, which is the average of the high (C$1.57) and low (C$1.40) prices of the registrant’s Subordinate Voting Shares in Canadian dollars (“C$”) as reported on the Canadian Securities Exchange (“CSE”) on May 17, 2021, which date is within five business days prior to filing this registration statement, and as converted from Canadian dollars to United States dollars based on the foreign exchange rate (1.2081) as published by the Bank of Canada on May 17, 2021.
 
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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The selling securityholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
 
 
 
 
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUBJECT TO COMPLETION DATED MAY 24, 2021
 
PROSPECTUS
 
 
22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares
 
Lowell Farms Inc.
 
This prospectus relates to 22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares of Lowell Farms Inc., a British Columbia, Canada corporation, that may be sold from time to time by the selling securityholders set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Selling Securityholders” beginning on page 23 which we refer to as the “Selling Securityholders.”
 
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities under this prospectus.
 
Information regarding the Selling Securityholders, the amounts of Subordinate Voting Shares that may be sold by them and the times and manner in which they may offer and sell the Subordinate Voting Shares under this prospectus is provided under the sections titled “Selling Securityholders” and “Plan of Distribution,” respectively, in this prospectus. We have not been informed by any of the Selling Securityholders that they intend to sell their securities covered by this prospectus and do not know when or in what amounts the Selling Securityholders may offer the securities for sale. The Selling Securityholders may sell any, all, or none of the securities offered by this prospectus.
 
The Selling Securityholders and intermediaries through whom such securities are sold may be deemed “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, with respect to the securities offered hereby, and any profits realized or commissions received may be deemed underwriting compensation. We have agreed to indemnify the Selling Securityholders against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
 
The Subordinate Voting Shares are listed for trading on the Canadian Securities Exchange (“CSE”) under the symbol “LOWL” and are traded over-the-counter in the United States on the OTCQX under the symbol “LOWLF.” On May 17, 2021, the last reported sale price of our Subordinate Voting Shares on the CSE was C$1.45 per share.
 
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section titled “Risk Factors,” which begins on page 8.
 
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to provide you with information concerning us, except for the information contained in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is complete and accurate only as of the date on the front cover page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or the sale of any securities. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
The date of this prospectus is [●], 2021
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
5
THE OFFERING
7
RISK FACTORS
8
USE OF PROCEEDS
22
SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS
23
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
24
DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY
40
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
43
MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
43
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
44
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
64
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
66
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS
69
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT
70
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
72
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES TO BE REGISTERED
80
INTERESTS OF NAMED EXPERTS AND COUNSEL
82
LEGAL MATTERS
82
EXPERTS
82
HOW TO GET MORE INFORMATION
82
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
F-1
INDEX TO PRO FORMA FINANCIAL STATEMENT
PF-1
 
 
 
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 
 
This registration statement includes “forward-looking information” and “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws and United States securities laws (collectively, “forward-looking statements”). In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may”, “will”, “would”, “could”, “should”, “believes”, “estimates”, “projects”, “potential”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “anticipates”, “targeted”, “continues”, “forecasts”, “designed”, “goal”, or the negative of those words or other similar or comparable words. Any statements contained in this registration statement that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects.  The forward-looking statements contained herein are based on certain key expectations and assumptions, including, but not limited to, with respect to expectations and assumptions concerning receipt and/or maintenance of required licenses and third party consents and the success of our operations, are based on estimates prepared by us using data from publicly available governmental sources, as well as from market research and industry analysis, and on assumptions based on data and knowledge of this industry that we believe to be reasonable. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in this registration statement may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors.” Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available after the date of this registration statement. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the SEC after the date of this registration statement.
 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
 
Unless the context indicates or suggests otherwise, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Company,” or “Lowell Farms” refer to Lowell Farms Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of British Columbia, Canada, individually, or as the context requires, collectively with its subsidiaries. We changed our name from Indus Holdings, Inc. to Lowell Farms Inc, effective March 1, 2021. For a discussion of our corporate history, see “Corporate Information” beginning on page 40 below.
 
In this prospectus, currency amounts are stated in U.S. dollars (“$”), unless specified otherwise. All references to C$ are to Canadian dollars.
 
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
 
This summary does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the entire prospectus, including the Risk Factors and our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus before making an investment decision.
  
General
 
We are a California-based cannabis company with vertically integrated operations including large scale cultivation, extraction, processing, manufacturing, branding, packaging and wholesale distribution to retail dispensaries. We manufacture and distribute proprietary and third-party brands throughout the State of California, the largest cannabis market in the world. We also provide manufacturing, extraction and distribution services to third-party cannabis and cannabis branding companies. We operate a 225,000 square foot greenhouse cultivation facility in Monterey County, a 15,000 square foot manufacturing and laboratory facility in Salinas, California, a separate 20,000 square foot distribution facility in Salinas, California and a warehouse depot and distribution vehicles in Los Angeles, California.
 
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On February 25, 2021, we acquired the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes trademark brands, product portfolio and production assets from The Hacienda Company, LLC, a California limited liability company (“Hacienda”), and its subsidiaries. The acquisition is referred to in this Form S-1 as the “Lowell Acquisition.” The Lowell Acquisition expanded our product offerings by adding a highly regarded, mature line of premium branded cannabis pre-rolls, including infused pre-rolls, to our product portfolio under the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes brands. The Lowell Acquisition also expanded our offerings of premium packaged flower, concentrates, and vape products. We believe our pre-existing strengths in cultivation and sourcing will enhance the value of the brands and products acquired in the Lowell Acquisition.
 
The Lowell Acquisition also substantially broadened our customer base by adding highly developed direct-to-consumer channels to complement our pre-existing network of retail dispensary customers. This addition to our customer base has resulted in broader geographic coverage in California by the combined business.
 
Corporate Information
 
We are incorporated under the laws of British Columbia, Canada. On April 26, 2019, we completed a reverse takeover transaction with Indus Holding Company, a Delaware corporation. On March 1, 2021, in connection with the Lowell Acquisition, we changed our name to Lowell Farms Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
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THE OFFERING
 
Subordinate Voting Shares Offered:
 
22,643,678
 
 
 
Outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares:
 
70,612,253
 
 
 
Use of Proceeds:
 
We are not selling any securities under this prospectus and we will not receive any proceeds from any sale of securities by the Selling Securityholders.
 
 
 
CSE Symbol for Subordinate Voting Shares:
 
LOWL
 
 
 
OTCQX Symbol for Subordinate Voting Shares:
 
LOWLF
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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RISK FACTORS
 
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Investors should carefully consider the risks described below and all of the other information set forth in this Registration Statement on Form S-1, including our financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding to invest in our common stock. If any of the events or developments described below occur, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially or adversely affected. As a result, the market price of our common stock could decline, and investors could lose all or part of their investment.
 
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
 
Cannabis Continues to be a Controlled Substance under the CSA and is Illegal Under United States federal law.
 
The Company is engaged directly in the medical and adult-use cannabis industry. The Company derives all of its revenues from the State of California and conducts its activities in accordance with applicable state and local laws. Even though the Company’s cannabis-related activities are compliant with applicable state and local law, such activities remain illegal under U.S. federal law.
 
In the United States, cannabis is extensively regulated at the state level. 36 States, the District of Columbia and four US territories have legalized medical cannabis in some form. Of these States, 15 States, including California, have legalized cannabis for adult use. Notwithstanding the permissive regulatory environment of cannabis at the State level, cannabis continues to be categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA and as such, the cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis violates federal law. Although the Company believes its business is compliant with applicable State and local law, strict compliance with state and local laws with respect to cannabis may not absolve the Company of liability under federal law, nor may it provide a defense to any federal proceeding which be brought against the Company. Any such proceedings brought against the Company may result in a material adverse effect on the Company.
 
Since the cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis is illegal under federal law, the Company may be deemed to be aiding and abetting illegal activities. Under these circumstances, U.S. law enforcement authorities, in their attempt to regulate the illegal use of cannabis, may seek to bring an action or actions against the Company, including, but not limited to, a claim regarding the possession and sale of cannabis, and/or aiding and abetting another’s criminal activities. The federal law provides that anyone who “commits an offense or aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces or procures its commission, is punishable as a principal.” As a result, the DOJ could allege that Lowell Farms has “aided and abetted” violations of federal law by providing financing and services to its subsidiaries. Under these circumstances, a federal prosecutor could seek to seize the assets of the Company, and to recover any “illicit profits” previously distributed as of such time to shareholders resulting from any of the foregoing. In these circumstances, the Company’s operations would cease, shareholders could lose their entire investment and directors, officers and/or shareholders may be left to defend any criminal charges against them at their own expense and, if convicted, be sent to federal prison. Such potential criminal liability of our shareholders could arise solely by virtue of their activities as shareholders. Such an action would result in a material adverse effect on the Company.
 
The United States Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) enforces the laws of the United States. Crossing the border while in violation of the CSA and other related federal laws may result in denied admission, seizures, fines and apprehension. CBP officers administer the Immigration and Nationality Act to determine the admissibility of travelers, who are non-U.S. citizens, into the United States. An investment in the Company, if it became known to CBP, could have an impact on a shareholder’s admissibility into the United States and could lead to a lifetime ban on admission.
 
Enforcement of U.S. Federal Law Could Damage the Company’s Operations and Financial Position.
 
Since 2014, the United States Congress has passed appropriations bills that have included the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment. For now, the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment, as discussed above, is the only statutory restraint on enforcement of federal cannabis laws. Courts in the U.S. have construed these appropriations bills to prevent the federal government from prosecuting individuals or businesses when those individuals or businesses operate in strict compliance with state and local medical cannabis regulations; however, this legislation only covers medical cannabis, not adult-use cannabis, and has historically been passed as an amendment to omnibus appropriations bills, which by their nature expire at the end of a fiscal year or other defined term.
 
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The Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment may or may not be included in future omnibus appropriations packages or continuing budget resolutions, and its inclusion or non-inclusion, as applicable, is subject to political changes. Because this conduct continues to violate federal law, U.S. courts have observed that should the Congress at any time choose to appropriate funds to fully prosecute the CSA, any individual or business - even those that have fully complied with State law - could be prosecuted for violations of federal law and if the Congress restores such funding, the federal government will have the authority to prosecute individuals and businesses for violations of the law while it lacked funding, to the extent of the CSA’s five-year statute of limitations applicable to non-capital CSA violations. The Company may be irreparably harmed by any change in enforcement policies by the federal or applicable state governments, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, revenues, operating results and financial condition as well as the Company’s reputation.
 
Violations of any federal laws and regulations could result in significant fines, penalties, administrative sanctions, convictions or settlements arising from civil proceedings conducted by either the federal government or private citizens, or criminal charges, including, but not limited to, disgorgement of profits, cessation of business activities or divestiture. This could have a material adverse effect on the Company, including its reputation and ability to conduct business, its holding (directly or indirectly) of cannabis licenses in California, the listing of its securities on any stock exchange, its financial position, operating results, profitability or liquidity or the market price of its shares. In addition, it will be difficult for the Company to estimate the time or resources that would be needed in connection with the investigation of any such matters or its final resolution because, in part, the time and resources that may be needed are dependent on the nature and extent of any information requested by the applicable authorities involved, and such time or resources could be substantial.
 
As a result of the conflicting views between states and the federal government regarding cannabis, investments in cannabis businesses in the U.S. are subject to inconsistent legislation and regulation. The response to this inconsistency was addressed in Cole Memorandum, acknowledging that notwithstanding the designation of cannabis as a controlled substance at the federal level in the United States, several U.S. states had enacted laws relating to cannabis for medical purposes. The Cole Memorandum outlined certain enforcement priorities for the DOJ relating to the prosecution of cannabis offenses. In particular, the Cole Memorandum noted that in jurisdictions that have enacted laws legalizing cannabis in some form and that have also implemented strong and effective regulatory and enforcement systems to control the cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis, conduct in compliance with those laws and regulations is less likely to be a priority at the federal level. Notably, however, the DOJ did not provide specific guidelines for what regulatory and enforcement systems it deemed sufficient under the Cole Memorandum standard.
 
In light of limited investigative and prosecutorial resources, the Cole Memorandum concluded that the DOJ should be focused on addressing only the most significant threats. States where cannabis had been legalized were not characterized as a high priority. In March 2017, the then newly appointed Attorney General Jeff Sessions again noted limited federal resources and acknowledged that much of the Cole Memorandum had merit; however, he disagreed that it had been implemented effectively. Accordingly, on January 4, 2018, Attorney General Sessions issued the Sessions Memorandum, which rescinded the Cole Memorandum on the basis that the direction provided therein was unnecessary, given the well-established principles governing federal prosecution that are already in place. Those principals are included in chapter 9-27-000 of the United States Attorneys’ Manual and require federal prosecutors deciding which cases to prosecute to weigh all relevant considerations, including federal law enforcement priorities set by the Attorney General, the seriousness of the crime, the deterrent effect of criminal prosecution and the cumulative impact of particular crimes on the community. Due to the ambiguity of the Sessions Memorandum and the lack of clarity provided by the DOJ since then, there can be no assurance that the federal government will not seek to prosecute cases involving cannabis businesses that are otherwise compliant with State law.
 
The effect of the rescission of the Cole Memorandum remains to be seen. Currently, federal prosecutors are free to utilize their prosecutorial discretion to decide whether to prosecute cannabis activities despite the existence of state-level laws that may be inconsistent with federal prohibitions. No direction was given to federal prosecutors in the Sessions Memorandum as to the priority they should ascribe to such cannabis activities, and resultantly it is uncertain how active federal prosecutors will be in relation to such activities. While some U.S. Attorneys expressed support for the rescission of the Cole Memorandum, numerous government officials, legislators and federal prosecutors in states with medical and adult-use cannabis statutes announced their intention to continue the Cole Memorandum-era status quo.
 
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The impact that this lack of uniformity between state and federal authorities could have on individual state cannabis markets and the businesses that operate within them is unclear, and the enforcement of relevant federal laws is a significant risk. Potential federal prosecutions could involve significant restrictions being imposed upon the Company or third parties, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, revenues, operating results and financial condition, as well as the Company’s reputation and prospects, even if such proceedings were concluded successfully in favor of the Company. Such proceedings could involve the prosecution of key executives of the Company or the seizure of corporate assets.
 
With a new administration at the U.S. federal level, it is possible that additional changes (whether positive or negative) could occur. There can be no assurance as to the position any new administration may take on marijuana and a new administration could decide to take a stronger approach to the enforcement of federal laws. Any enforcement of current federal laws could cause significant damage to the Company’s operations and financial position. Further, future presidential administrations may want to treat marijuana differently and potentially enforce the federal laws more aggressively.
 
The Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment may not be Renewed Potentially Resulting in DOJ Enforcement Activities Against Entities in the Cannabis Industry.
 
The Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment, as discussed above, prohibits the DOJ from spending funds appropriated by Congress to enforce the tenets of the CSA against the medical cannabis industry in states which have legalized such activity. On December 27, 2020, the amendment was renewed through the signing of the fiscal year 2021 omnibus spending bill and is effective through September 30, 2021. There can be no assurance that the federal government will not seek to prosecute cases involving medical cannabis businesses that are otherwise compliant with state law. Such potential proceedings could involve significant restrictions being imposed upon the Company or third parties, while diverting the attention of key executives. Such proceedings could have a material adverse effect on the Company, even if such proceedings were concluded successfully in favor of the Company.
 
Federal and State Forfeiture Laws Could Result in Seizure of our Assets.
 
As an entity that conducts business in the cannabis industry, the Company is subject to U. S. federal and state forfeiture laws (criminal and civil) that permit the government to seize the proceeds of criminal activity. Civil forfeiture laws could provide an alternative for the federal government or any state (or local police force) that wants to discourage residents from conducting transactions with cannabis related businesses but believes criminal liability is too difficult to prosecute. Also, an individual can be required to forfeit property considered to be the proceeds of a crime even if the individual is not convicted of the crime, and the standard of proof in a civil forfeiture matter is lower than the standard in a criminal matter. Shareholders of the Company located in jurisdictions where cannabis remains illegal may be at risk of prosecution under federal and/or state conspiracy, aiding and abetting, and money laundering statutes, and be at further risk of losing their investments or proceeds under forfeiture statutes. Many states remain fully able to take action to prevent the proceeds of cannabis businesses from entering their state. Because state legalization is relatively new, it remains to be seen whether these states would take such action and whether a court would approve it. Current and prospective securityholders of the Company or any entity related thereto should be aware of these potentially relevant federal and State laws in considering whether to remain invested or invest in the Company or any entity related thereto.
 
Future Research may Lead to Findings that Vaporizers, Electronic Cigarettes and Related Products are not Safe for Their Intended Use.
 
Vaporizers, electronic cigarettes and related products were recently developed and therefore the scientific or medical communities have had a limited period of time to study the long-term health effects of their use. Currently, there is limited scientific or medical data on the safety of such products for their intended use and the medical community is still studying the health effects of the use of such products, including the long-term health effects. If the scientific or medical community were to determine conclusively that use of any or all of these products pose long-term health risks, market demand for these products and their use could materially decline. Such a determination could also lead to litigation, reputational harm and significant regulation. Loss of demand for our product, product liability claims and increased regulation stemming from unfavorable scientific studies on cannabis vaporizer products could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
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We May Have Limited Access to Capital as a Result of our Business and Operations.
 
Because the Company cultivates, processes, possesses, and distributes cannabis products in violation of the CSA, a significant proportion of providers of debt and equity capital are unwilling or unable to enter into financing transactions with the Company. As a result, the Company’s access to capital is and may continue to be extremely limited, which inhibits the ability of the Company to fund operations and investments in growth initiatives. The Company’s financial results, financial condition, business and prospects are and may continue to be materially adversely affected by its inability to access capital.
 
Anti-Money Laundering Laws and Regulations May Limit Access to Traditional Banking Funds and Services.
 
The Company is subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the U.S. and Canada that involve money laundering, financial recordkeeping and proceeds of crime, including the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), the U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Laws, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1956, 1957, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (Canada), as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, the Criminal Code (Canada) and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the U.S. and Canada. Further, under federal law, banks or other financial institutions often refuse to provide a checking account, debit or credit card, small business loan, or any banking services that could be found guilty of money-laundering, aiding and abetting or conspiracy to businesses involved in the cannabis industry due to the present state of the laws and regulations governing financial institutions in the U.S. The lack of banking and financial services presents unique and significant challenges to businesses in the U.S. cannabis industry. While Lowell Farms has maintained bank accounts, the loss of such accounts and the potential lack of a secure place in which to deposit and store cash, the inability to pay creditors through the issuance of checks and the inability to secure traditional forms of operational financing, such as lines of credit, are some of the many challenges presented to U.S. cannabis companies, and which could conceivably impact the Company, by the unavailability of traditional banking and financial services.
 
Despite these laws, FinCEN issued the FinCEN Guidance in 2014, which as described above, outlines the pathways for financial institutions to bank state sanctioned cannabis businesses in compliance with federal enforcement priorities. The FinCEN Guidance echoed the enforcement priorities of the Cole Memorandum. Under these guidelines, financial institutions must submit a Suspicious Activity Report (“SAR”) in connection with all cannabis-related banking activities by any client of such financial institution, in accordance with federal money laundering laws. These cannabis-related SARs are divided into three categories - cannabis limited, cannabis priority, and cannabis terminated - based on the financial institution’s belief that the business in question follows state law, is operating outside of compliance with state law, or where the banking relationship has been terminated, respectively.
 
The FinCEN Guidance states that in some circumstances, it is permissible for banks to provide services to cannabis-related businesses without risking prosecution for violation of federal money laundering laws. It refers to supplementary guidance included in the Cole Memorandum. The revocation of the Cole Memorandum has not yet affected the status of the FinCEN Guidance, nor has the United States Department of the Treasury given any indication that it intends to rescind the FinCEN Guidance itself. Although the FinCEN Guidance remains intact, it is unclear whether the current administration or future administrations will continue to follow the guidelines of the FinCEN Guidance. The DOJ continues to have the right and power to prosecute crimes committed by banks and financial institutions, such as money laundering and violations of the Bank Secrecy Act, that occur in any state including states that have in some form legalized the sale of cannabis. Further, the conduct of the DOJ’s enforcement priorities could change for any number of reasons. A change in the DOJ’s priorities could result in the DOJ’s prosecuting banks and financial institutions for crimes that were not previously prosecuted.
 
In the event that any of the Company’s operations, or any proceeds thereof, any dividends or distributions therefrom, or any profits or revenues accruing from such operations in the United States were found to be in violation of money laundering legislation or otherwise, such transactions may be viewed as proceeds of a crime under one or more of the statutes noted above or any other applicable legislation. Apart from the consequences of any prosecution in connection with such violation, among other things, this could restrict or otherwise jeopardize the Company’s ability to declare or pay dividends, effect other distributions or subsequently repatriate such funds back to Canada.
 
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Restricted Access to Banking Services Could Make Operating our Business and Maintaining our Finances Difficult.
 
The FinCEN Guidance, as further described above, remains effective to this day, in spite of the fact that the Cole Memorandum was rescinded and replaced by the Sessions Memorandum. The FinCEN Guidance does not provide any safe harbors or legal defenses from examination or regulatory or criminal enforcement actions by the DOJ, FinCEN or other federal regulators, though. Thus, most banks and other financial institutions in the U.S. do not appear to be comfortable providing banking services to cannabis-related businesses, or relying on this guidance, which can be amended or revoked at any time by the current or future federal administrations. In addition to the foregoing, banks may refuse to process debit card payments and credit card companies generally refuse to process credit card payments for cannabis-related businesses. As a result, the Company may have limited or no access to banking or other financial services in the U.S. The inability or limitation in the Company’s ability to open or maintain bank accounts, obtain other banking services and/or accept credit card and debit card payments may make it difficult for the Company to operate and conduct its business as planned or to operate efficiently.
 
Heightened Scrutiny by Securities Regulatory Authorities in the United States and Canada May Impact Investors’ Ability to Transact in the Company’s Securities.
 
The Company’s existing operations in the United States, and any future operations or investments, may become the subject of heightened scrutiny by regulators, stock exchanges and other authorities in the United States and/or Canada. As a result, the Company may be subject to significant direct and indirect interaction with public officials. It is impossible to determine the extent of the impact of any new laws, regulations or initiatives that may be proposed, or whether any proposals will become law or otherwise be adopted, and there can be no assurance that heightened scrutiny will not in turn lead to the imposition of certain restrictions on the Company’s ability to operate or invest in the United States or any other jurisdiction, in addition to those described herein.
 
The Company’s operations in the United States cannabis market may become the subject of heightened scrutiny by regulators, stock exchanges, clearing agencies and other authorities in Canada. It has been reported by certain publications in Canada that the Canadian Depository for Securities Limited is considering a policy shift that would see its subsidiary, CDS Clearing and Depository Services Inc. (“CDS”), refuse to settle trades for cannabis issuers that have investments in the United States. CDS is Canada’s central securities depository, clearing and settlement hub settling trades in the Canadian equity, fixed income and money markets. CDS or its parent company has not issued any public statement with regard to these reports. On February 8, 2018, following discussions with the Canadian Securities Administrators and recognized Canadian securities exchanges, CDS signed the CDS Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with The Aequitas NEO Exchange Inc., the CSE, the Toronto Stock Exchange, and the TSX Venture Exchange. The MOU outlines the parties’ understanding of Canada’s regulatory framework applicable to the rules and procedures and regulatory oversight of the exchanges and CDS as it relates to issuers with cannabis-related activities in the United States. The MOU confirms, with respect to the clearing of listed securities, that CDS relies on the exchanges to review the conduct of listed issuers. As a result, there currently is no CDS ban on the clearing of securities of issuers with cannabis -related activities in the United States. However, if CDS were to proceed in the manner suggested by these publications, and apply such a ban on the clearing of securities of the Company, it would have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Company’s shareholders to effect trades of shares through the facilities of a stock exchange in Canada, as a result of which such shares could become highly illiquid.
 
The Depositary Trust Company (“DTC”) is the primary depository for securities in the United States. Several major U.S. securities clearing companies that provide clearance, custody and settlement services in the United States terminated providing clearance services to issuers in the cannabis industry, including those that operate entirely outside the United States, in response to the Sessions Memo. As a result of these decisions, U.S. securityholders may experience difficulties depositing securities of cannabis companies in the DTC system or reselling their securities in open market transactions, including transactions facilitated through the CSE. Many larger U.S. broker-dealers own U.S. securities companies that self-clear transactions. However, some U.S. brokerages have adopted policies precluding their clients from trading securities of cannabis issuers.
 
-12-
 
 
Changes in State or Federal Political/or Regulatory Climate Could Impact the Company’s Business.
 
The success of the Company’s business strategy depends on the legality of the cannabis industry in the states in which the Company operates, and the lack of federal enforcement of its laws that make cannabis businesses illegal. The political environment surrounding the cannabis industry in general can be volatile and the statutory and regulatory framework remains in flux. Despite widespread state legalization, the risk remains that a shift in the regulatory or political realm could occur and have a drastic impact on the industry as a whole, adversely impacting the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects.
 
Delays in enactment of or changes in new state regulations, or changes in federal laws or enforcement priorities, could restrict the Company’s ability to reach strategic growth targets and lower return on investor capital. The strategic growth strategy of the Company will be reliant upon state regulations being implemented to facilitate the operation of medical and adult-use cannabis in California. If such regulations are not timely implemented, or are subsequently repealed or amended, or contain prolonged or problematic phase-in or transition periods or provisions, the Company’s ability to achieve its growth targets, and thus, the return on investor capital, could be adversely affected. The Company is unable to predict with certainty when and how the outcome of these complex regulatory and legislative proceedings will affect its business and growth.
 
Further, there is no guarantee that state laws legalizing and regulating the sale and use of cannabis will not be repealed or overturned, or that local governmental authorities will not limit the applicability of state laws within their respective jurisdictions. If the federal government begins to enforce federal laws relating to cannabis in states where the sale and use of cannabis is currently legal, or if existing applicable state laws are repealed or curtailed, the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects would be materially adversely affected. It is also important to note that local and city ordinances may strictly limit and/or restrict cannabis businesses in a manner that will make it extremely difficult or impossible to transact business that is necessary for the continued operation of the cannabis industry, including the Company. Federal actions against individuals or entities engaged in the cannabis industry or a repeal of applicable cannabis related legislation could adversely affect the Company and its business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
 
The medical and adult-use cannabis industries are in their infancy and the Company anticipates that the current California regulations will be subject to change as California’s regulation of the cannabis industry matures. The Company’s compliance program emphasizes security and inventory control to ensure strict monitoring of cannabis and other inventory from cultivation to sale or disposal. Additionally, Lowell Farms has created standard operating procedures that include descriptions and instructions for monitoring inventory at all stages of cultivation, processing, manufacturing, distribution, transportation and delivery. The Company will continue to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis in accordance with its compliance program, standard operating procedures, and any changes to applicable regulation.
 
Overall, the medical and adult-use cannabis industry is subject to significant regulatory change at each of the local, state and federal level. The inability of the Company to respond to the changing regulatory landscape may cause it to be unsuccessful in capturing significant market share and could otherwise harm its business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects.
 
Investors Could Be Disqualified From Ownership in the Company.
 
The Company’s business is in a highly regulated industry in which many states have enacted extensive rules for ownership of a participant company. Investors in the Company could become disqualified from having an ownership stake in the Company under relevant laws and regulations of applicable state and/or local regulators, if the applicable owner is convicted of a certain type of felony or fails to meet the requirements for owning equity in a company like the Company.
 
-13-
 
 
Negative Public Opinion and Perception of the Cannabis Industry Could Adversely Impact Our Ability to Operate and Our Growth Strategy.
 
Government policy changes or public opinion may result in a significant influence over the regulation of the cannabis industry in Canada, the United States or elsewhere. The Company believes the medical and adult-use cannabis industry is highly dependent on consumer perception regarding the safety and efficacy of such cannabis. Consumer perceptions regarding legality, morality, consumption, safety, efficacy and quality of cannabis are mixed and evolving. Public opinion and support for medical and adult-use cannabis has traditionally been inconsistent and varied from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. While public opinion and support appears to be rising for legalizing medical and adult-use cannabis, it remains a controversial issue subject to differing opinions surrounding the level of legalization (for example, medical cannabis as opposed to legalization in general). A negative shift in the public’s perception of cannabis in the United States or any other applicable jurisdiction could affect future legislation or regulation. Among other things, such a shift could cause state jurisdictions to abandon initiatives or proposals to legalize medical and/or adult-use cannabis, or could result in adverse regulatory changes in California, thereby limiting the Company’s growth prospects and number of new state jurisdictions into which the Company could expand. Any inability to fully implement the Company’s expansion strategy may have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations or prospects.
 
Significant Licensure Requirements and Limitations in States Where Cannabis is Legal Could Impact the Company’s Ability to Maintain its Operations.
 
The Company’s business is subject to a variety of laws, regulations and guidelines relating to the cultivation, manufacture, management, transportation, extraction, storage and disposal of cannabis, including laws and regulations relating to health and safety, the conduct of operations and the protection of the environment. Achievement of the Company’s business objectives are contingent, in part, upon compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and obtaining all requisite regulatory approvals. Changes to such laws, regulations and guidelines due to matters beyond the control of the Company may cause adverse effects to the Company.
 
The Company will be required to obtain or renew government permits and licenses for its current and contemplated operations. Obtaining, amending or renewing the necessary governmental permits and licenses can be a time-consuming process involving numerous regulatory agencies, involving public hearings and costly undertakings on the Company’s part. The duration and success of the Company’s efforts to obtain, amend and renew permits and licenses will be contingent upon many variables not within its control, including the interpretation of applicable requirements implemented by the relevant permitting or licensing authority. The Company may not be able to obtain, amend or renew permits or licenses that are necessary to its operations. Any unexpected delays or costs associated with the permitting and licensing process could impede the ongoing or proposed operations of the Company. To the extent permits or licenses are not obtained, amended or renewed, or are subsequently suspended or revoked, the Company may be curtailed or prohibited from proceeding with its ongoing operations or planned renovation, development and commercialization activities. Such curtailment or prohibition may result in a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. California state licenses, and some local licenses, are renewed annually. Each year, licensees are required to submit a renewal application per guidelines published by the BCC (for state licenses) or the applicable local regulatory body (for local licenses), including the DCR. While renewals are annual, there is no ultimate expiry after which no renewals are permitted. Additionally, with respect to the renewal process, provided that the requisite renewal fees are paid, the renewal application is submitted in a timely manner and there are no material violations noted against the applicable license, the Company would expect to receive the applicable renewed license in the ordinary course of business.
 
Under MAUCRSA, after January 1, 2018, only license holders are permitted to engage in commercial cannabis activities. A prerequisite to obtaining a California state license is obtaining a valid license, permit or authorization from a local municipality. The process associated with acquiring a permanent state license is onerous and there are no assurances that the Company, or any subsidiary or entity to which the Company will provide or intends to provide services, will be granted any licenses or any renewals thereof. Because there are different licenses for different types of commercial cannabis activities, even if the Company, any subsidiary and/or any such entity to which the Company will provide services or intends to provide services is granted one or more licenses, there are no assurances that they will be granted all of the licenses they will need to effectuate the Company’s business plan. Further, as part of the permitting and licensing process in California, state and local officials may conduct both random and scheduled inspections of cannabis operations. The Company is required to comply with both state laws and regulations and applicable local ordinances and codes. Compliance with both state and local laws may be burdensome and failure to do so could result in the loss of licenses, civil penalties and possibly criminal prosecution. While the compliance controls of Lowell Farms have been developed to mitigate the risk of any material violations of any license it holds arising, there is no assurance that the Company’s licenses will be renewed by each applicable regulatory authority in the future in a timely manner. Any unexpected delays or costs associated with the licensing renewal process for any of the licenses held or to be held by the Company could impede the ongoing or planned operations of the Company and have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
 
-14-
 
 
The Company may become involved in a number of government or agency proceedings, investigations and audits. The outcome of any regulatory or agency proceedings, investigations, audits, and other contingencies could harm the Company’s reputation, require the Company to take, or refrain from taking, actions that could harm its operations or require the Company to pay substantial amounts of money, harming its financial condition. There can be no assurance that any pending or future regulatory or agency proceedings, investigations and audits will not result in substantial costs or a diversion of management’s attention and resources or have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
 
Reclassification of Cannabis in the United States Could Adversely Impact the Company’s Business and Growth Strategy.
 
If marijuana is re-categorized as a Schedule II or lower controlled substance, the ability to conduct research on the medical benefits of cannabis would most likely be improved; however, if cannabis is re-categorized as a Schedule II or other controlled substance, and the resulting re-classification would result in the requirement for U.S. FDA approval if medical claims are made for the Company’s products such as medical cannabis, then as a result, such products may be subject to a significant degree of regulation by the U.S. FDA and DEA. In that case, the Company may be required to be registered (licensed) to perform these activities and have the security, control, recordkeeping, reporting and inventory mechanisms required by the DEA to prevent drug loss and diversion. Obtaining the necessary registrations may result in delay of the cultivation, manufacturing or distribution of the Company’s anticipated products. The DEA conducts periodic inspections of certain registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Failure to maintain compliance could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations, or initiate proceedings to restrict, suspend or revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could lead to criminal proceedings. Furthermore, if the U.S. FDA, DEA, or any other regulatory authority determines that the Company’s products may have potential for abuse, it may require the Company to generate more clinical or other data than the Company currently anticipates in order to establish whether or to what extent the substance has an abuse potential, which could increase the cost and/or delay the launch of that product.
 
Service Providers May Suspend or Withdraw Services if an Adverse Change in Cannabis Regulation Occurs.
 
As a result of any adverse change to the approach in enforcement of United States cannabis laws, adverse regulatory or political change, additional scrutiny by regulatory authorities, adverse change in public perception in respect of the consumption of marijuana or otherwise, third party service providers to the Company could suspend or withdraw their services, which may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, revenues, operating results, financial condition or prospects.
 
Increasing Legalization of Cannabis and Rapid Growth and Consolidation in the Cannabis Industry may Further Intensify Competition.
 
The cannabis industry is undergoing rapid growth and substantial change, and the legal landscape for medical and recreational cannabis is rapidly changing internationally. An increasing number of jurisdictions globally are passing legislation allowing for the production and distribution of medical and/or recreational cannabis in some form or another. Entry into the cannabis market by international competitors might lower the demand for our products.
 
The foregoing legalization and growth trends in the cannabis industry has resulted in an increase in competitors, consolidation and formation of strategic relationships. Such acquisitions or other consolidating transactions could harm us in a number of ways, including by losing strategic partners if they are acquired by or enter into relationships with a competitor, losing customers, revenue and market share, or forcing us to expend greater resources to meet new or additional competitive threats,all of which could harm our operating results. As competitors enter the market and become increasingly sophisticated, competition in the cannabis industry may intensify and place downward pressure on retail prices for products and services, which could negatively impact profitability.
 
-15-
 
 
The Company May Encounter Difficulties Entering its Contracts in Federal and Some State Courts.
 
Due to the nature of the Company’s business and the fact that its contracts involve cannabis and other activities that are not legal under federal law, the Company may face difficulties in enforcing its contracts in federal and certain state courts. The inability to enforce any of the Company’s contracts could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition or prospects. California enacted a law that provides that notwithstanding any other law, commercial activity relating to medicinal cannabis or adult-use cannabis conducted in compliance with California law and any applicable local standards, requirements, and regulations shall be deemed to be all of the following: (1) a lawful object of a contract, (2) not contrary to, an express provision of law, any policy of express law, or good morals, and (3) not against public policy.
 
The Company’s articles of incorporation provides that the Supreme Court of the Province of British Columbia, Canada and the appellate Courts therefrom are the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action brought on behalf of the company, which may limit our investors’ flexibility in selecting a forum for any future disputes.
 
Our articles of incorporation provides that the Supreme Court of the Province of British Columbia, Canada and the appellate Courts therefrom are the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action brought on behalf of the company. Our articles of incorporation do not limit the ability of investors to bring direct actions outside of British Columbia, Canada, including those arising under the Exchange Act and the Securities Act. Section 27 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over actions brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Neither investors nor the Company and may waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and it is therefore uncertain whether the exclusive forum provision of our charter would be enforced by a court as to derivative claims brought under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act. Furthermore, the exclusive forum provision of our charter may increase the costs to investors in bringing claims, may discourage investors from bringing claims and may limit investors’ ability to bring claims in a judicial forum that they find favorable.
 
The COVID-19 Pandemic May Adversely Affect Our Business and Financial Condition.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted commercial and economic activity and contributed to significant volatility in the equity and debt markets in the U.S. and Canada. The impact of the outbreak continues to develop and many jurisdictions, including the State of California and local municipalities, have instituted quarantines, prohibitions on travel and the closure of offices, businesses, schools, retail stores and other public venues. Individual businesses and industries are also implementing similar precautionary measures. Those measures, as well as the general uncertainty surrounding the dangers and effects of COVID-19, have created significant disruption in supply chains and economic activity. New strains of the virus have been identified originating in the U.S. and elsewhere. These new strains may have different transmission, morbidity and mortality rates than the original virus, and the COVID-19 vaccines developed to date may not be effective to provide immunization against new strains of the virus. While the Company has continuously sought to assess the potential impact of the pandemic on its financial condition and operating results, any assessment is subject to extreme uncertainty as to probability, severity and duration. The continued spread of the virus globally could result in a protracted world-wide economic downturn, the effects of which could last for some period after the pandemic is controlled and/or abated and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. The impact of COVID-19 could have the effect of heightening many of the other risk factors described herein.
 
-16-
 
 
The Company has attempted to assess the impact of the pandemic by identifying risks in the following principle areas.
 
o
Price Volatility. Since the COVID-19 outbreak commenced, the securities markets in the U.S. and Canada have experienced a high level of price and volume volatility and wide fluctuations in the market prices of securities of many companies, which have not necessarily been related to the operating performance, underlying asset values or prospects of such companies. Future developments may adversely impact the price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
 
o
Mandatory Closure . In California, the Company’s business has been deemed an “essential service”, permitting the Company to stay open despite the mandatory closure of non-essential businesses. The Company continues to work closely with state and local regulators to remain operational, but there is no guarantee further measures may nevertheless require it to shut operations.
 
o
Customer Impact . While the Company has not experienced an overall downturn in demand for its products in connection with the pandemic, fluctuating rates of illness, as well as quarantining, self-quarantining, “social distancing” and other responsive measures, may have a material negative impact on demand for its products while the pandemic continues. Certain of the Company’s customers have altered operating procedures as a result of the outbreak and the impact of such changes is being monitored by the Company.
 
o
Supply Chain Disruption . The Company relies on third party suppliers for equipment and services to produce its products and keep its operations going. If its suppliers are unable to continue operating due to mandatory closures or other effects of the pandemic, it may negatively impact its own ability to continue operating. At this time, the Company has not experienced any failure to secure critical supplies or services. However, disruptions in our supply chain may affect our ability to continue certain aspects of the Company’s operations or may significantly increase the cost of operating its business and significantly reduce its margins.
 
o
Staffing Disruption . The Company is, for the time being, implementing among its staff where feasible “social distancing” measures recommended by such bodies as the Center of Disease Control, the Presidential Administration, as well as state and local governments. The Company has cancelled non-essential travel by employees, implemented remote meetings where possible, and permitted all staff who can work remotely to do so. For those whose duties require them to work on-site, measures have been implemented to reduce infection risk, mandating additional cleaning of workspaces and hand disinfection, providing masks and gloves to certain personnel. Nevertheless, despite such measures, the Company may find it difficult to ensure that its operations remain staffed due to employees falling ill with COVID-19, becoming subject to quarantine, or deciding not to come to come to work on their own volition to avoid infection. At certain locations, the Company has experienced increased absenteeism due to the pandemic. If such absenteeism increases, the Company may not be able, including through replacement and temporary staff, to continue to operate in some or all locations. In addition, the Company may incur increased medical costs/insurance premiums as a result of these health risks to its personnel.
 
o
Regulatory Backlog . Regulatory authorities, including those that oversee the cannabis industry on the state level, are heavily occupied with their response to the pandemic. These regulators as well as other executive and legislative bodies in California may not be able to provide the level of support and attention to day-to-day regulatory functions as well as to needed regulatory development and reform that they would otherwise have provided. Such regulatory backlog may materially hinder the development of the Company’s business by delaying such activities as product launches, facility openings and approval of any future business acquisitions, thus materially impeding development of its business.
 
The Company is actively addressing the risk to business continuity represented by each of the above factors through the implementation of a broad range of measures throughout its structure and is re-assessing its response to the COVID-19 pandemic on an ongoing basis. The above risks individually or collectively may have a material impact on the Company’s ability to generate revenue. Implementing measures to remediate the risks identified above may materially increase our costs of doing business, reduce our margins and potentially result in or increase losses. While the Company is not currently in financial distress, if the Company’s financial situation materially deteriorates as a result of the impact of the pandemic, the Company could eventually be unable to meet its obligations to third parties, which in turn could lead to insolvency and bankruptcy of the Company.
 
-17-
 
 
The regional stay home order, announced by the California Department of Public Health on December 3, 2020, as supplemented by an additional order executed on December 6, 2020, was issued to apply across California on a regional basis in respect of certain designated regions. It is required to go into effect in respect of a particular region at 11:59 p.m. the day after such region has been announced to have less than 15% ICU availability. Among other implications in the event this order becomes effective in respect of a region:
 
o
private gatherings of any size are prohibited in such region,
 
o
all individuals living in such region are required to stay home except as necessary to conduct activities associated with the operation, maintenance, or usage of critical infrastructure, as required by law, or as specifically permitted by this order,
 
o
indoor and outdoor restaurant dining, personal care services and indoor recreational facilities are required to close in such region,
 
o
critical infrastructure sectors may operate in such region and must continue to modify operations pursuant to the applicable sector guidance, and
 
o
all retailers in such region may operate indoors at no more than 20% capacity and must follow the public health guidance for retailers.
 
Apart from the conditions under which this stay home order is required to be followed, California state counties may exercise discretion to apply this order voluntarily.
 
The Company facilities are not currently subject to any stay home orders. The Company’s cultivation, manufacturing and distribution operations and the Company’s various suppliers of raw materials or inputs are considered to be a part of the essential infrastructure sectors and as such do not require a reduction in their scope or amount of activity. The end purchasers of products distributed by the Company, being cannabis retail dispensaries located across California, may be or become subject to this stay home order. They would nonetheless be able to continue to operate curbside pick-up and delivery services and potentially limited capacity indoor operations in order to effect the sale of their products, as they too are considered essential businesses. Nonetheless, the impact of this stay home order may be to lessen the demand for the Company’s products. The extent to which this stay home order may impact the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows is highly uncertain and cannot be quantified at this time. The Company will continue to monitor the impact of this stay home order and take measures that alter its business operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities and/or that the Company deems are in the best interests of its employees, customers, suppliers, shareholders and other stakeholders.
 
Wildfire Risks in Certain Areas of California Could Adversely Impact the Company’s Operations.
 
Certain areas of California, including certain areas nearby the Company’s cultivation facility in Monterey County, can be negatively impacted by wildfires. Wildfires can cause smoke and ash to pass through greenhouse vents and cause cannabis plants to fail testing. As a result, the Company will close the greenhouse vents when needed to prohibit smoke and ash from entering the greenhouses at its cultivation facility. However, closing the greenhouse vents may cause elevated temperatures within the greenhouses and as a result induced plant stress, thereby negatively affecting plant yields. Wildfires can also cause essential sunlight to be blocked out, thereby negatively affecting plant yields in another manner. Overall, such wildfires can materially disrupt the Company’s ability to harvest cannabis crops, significantly diminishing both the size and quality of the crops harvested, the Company’s supply chain, and other operations and as a result can negatively impact the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Wildfires that occurred in late summer, early fall 2020 negatively impacted the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows during the third quarter of 2020 and are expected to continue to have a negative impact for the fourth quarter of 2020 and potentially beyond as the Company completes its production from cannabis crops that were impacted by such wildfires that occurred earlier this year. In the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company installed automated environmental control systems within individual grow rooms at its cultivation facility. While the Company believes that the addition of such systems should mitigate future negative effects of wildfires that may occur nearby the Company’s cultivation facility, there is no guarantee that such negative effects would in fact be mitigated. The extent to which any such future wildfires or any other natural disaster impacts the Company’s results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
 
-18-
 
 
Risks Related to our Acquisitions
 
The anticipated benefits of the Lowell Acquisition may not be realized or may take longer than expected to realize.
 
Historically, the Company and the Lowell brands businesses have operated independently. The future success of the Lowell Acquisition, including anticipated benefits, depends, in part, on our ability to optimize our combined operations. The optimization of our operations following the Lowell Acquisition will be a complex and time-consuming process and if we experience difficulties in this process, the anticipated benefits may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected, which could have an adverse effect on us for an undetermined period. There can be no assurances that we will realize the potential operating efficiencies, synergies and other benefits currently anticipated from the Lowell Acquisition.
 
The integration of the Lowell brands businesses and the Company’s historical operations may present material challenges, including, without limitation:
 
o
combining the leadership teams and corporate cultures of the Company and Hacienda;
 
o
the diversion of management’s attention from other ongoing business concerns and performance shortfalls as a result of the devotion of management’s attention to the integration of the businesses;
 
o
managing a larger combined business;
 
o
maintaining employee morale and retaining key management and other employees at the combined company;
 
o
retaining existing business and operational relationships, and attracting new business and operational relationships;
 
o
the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying expectations regarding the integration process;
 
o
consolidating corporate and administrative infrastructures and eliminating duplicative operations;
 
o
managing expense loads and maintaining currently anticipated operating margins; and
 
o
unanticipated issues in integrating information technology, communications and other systems.
 
Some of these factors are outside of our control, and any one of them could result in delays, increased costs, decreases in the amount of potential revenues or synergies, potential cost savings, and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
 
We may complete additional acquisitions, enter into new lines of business and expand into new geographic markets and businesses, each of which may result in upfront costs and additional risks and uncertainties in our businesses.
 
We intend, if market conditions warrant, to grow our businesses by acquiring additional businesses, expanding existing products lines, entering into new product lines and entering new geographic markets. Attempts to expand our businesses involve a number of special risks, including some or all of the following:
 
o
the required investment of capital and other resources;
 
o
the diversion of management’s attention from our existing businesses;
 
o
the assumption of liabilities in any acquired business;
 
-19-
 
 
o
the disruption of our ongoing businesses;
 
o
entry into markets or lines of business in which we may have limited or no experience;
 
o
compliance with or applicability to our businesses of regulations and laws, including, in particular, regulations and laws in new states and localities, and a lack of experience in interacting with the regulatory authorities responsible for enforcing these regulations and laws; and
 
o
increasing demands on our operational and management systems and controls.
 
In addition, the acquisition of additional businesses would involve some or all of the integration risks identified above with respect to the Lowell Acquisition. Not all of our historical acquisitions have been successful. Because we have not yet identified these potential new acquisitions, product line expansions, and expansions into new geographic markets or lines of business, we cannot identify all of the specific risks we may face and the potential adverse consequences on us and their investment that may result from any attempted acquisition or expansion.
 
Loss of Foreign Private Issuer Status
 
As of January 1, 2021, the Company ceased to meet the definition of a “foreign private issuer” set out in Rule 405 of the  Securities Act. As of that date, the aggregate number of Super Voting Shares and Subordinate Voting Shares, held of record, directly or indirectly, by U.S. Residents exceeded 50% of the aggregate number of Super Voting Shares and Subordinate Voting Shares issued and outstanding. As a result of the loss of foreign private issuer status and the filing of our Form 10 that became effective on May 8, 2021, we are subject to SEC disclosure rules and other rules and regulations ‎applicable to domestic issuers. These obligations require ‎significant financial and management resources. We are also subject to liability under the Securities Act ‎and the Exchange Act. Liability under these acts can lead to monetary fines, limitations on future ‎financings and, if imposed, may impede our ability to finance our business‎.
 
Risks Related to the Securities of the Company
 
Unpredictability Caused by the Company’s Capital Structure Could Adversely Impact the Market for the Company’s Securities.
 
Although other Canadian-listed companies have dual class or multiple voting and exchangeable share structures, given the other unique features of the capital structure of the Company, including the existence of a significant amount of redeemable equity securities that have been issued by, and are issuable pursuant to the exercise, conversion or exchange of the applicable convertible and exchangeable securities of, Indus Holding Company, which equity securities are redeemable from time to time for Subordinate Voting Shares in accordance with their terms, the Company is not able to predict whether this structure will result in a lower trading price for or greater fluctuations in the trading price of the Subordinate Voting Shares or will result in adverse publicity to the Company or other adverse consequences.
 
Investors Could be Diluted by Future Financings.
 
The Company may need to raise additional financing in the future through the issuance of additional equity securities or convertible debt securities. If the Company raises additional funding by issuing additional equity securities or convertible debt securities, such financings may substantially dilute the interests of shareholders of the Company and reduce the value of their investment and the value of the Company’s securities.
 
The Market for Subordinate Voting Shares May be Illiquid.
 
There may not be an active, liquid market for the Subordinate Voting Shares. There is no guarantee that an active trading market for the Subordinate Voting Shares will be maintained on the CSE. Investors may not be able to sell their Subordinate Voting Shares quickly or at the latest market price if trading in the Subordinate Voting Shares is not active.
 
-20-
 
 
The Market Price of the Subordinate Voting Shares is Volatile.
 
The market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares cannot be predicted and has been and may be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. This volatility may affect the ability of holders of Subordinate Voting Shares to sell their securities at an advantageous price. Market price fluctuations in the Subordinate Voting Shares may be due to the Company’s operating results failing to meet expectations of securities analysts or investors in any period, downward revision in securities analysts’ estimates, adverse changes in general market conditions or competitive, regulatory or economic trends, adverse changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies in the industry in which the Company operates, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, capital commitments or other material public announcements by the Company or its competitors or government and regulatory authorities, operating and share price performance of the companies that investors deem comparable to the Company, addition or departure of the Company’s executive officers and other key personnel, along with a variety of additional factors. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
 
Financial markets have at times historically experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have particularly affected the market prices of equity and convertible securities of companies and that have often been unrelated to the operating performance, underlying asset values or prospects of such companies. Accordingly, the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares and any other listed securities of the Company, from time to time, may decline even if the Company’s operating results, underlying asset values or prospects have not changed. Additionally, these factors, as well as other related factors, may cause decreases in asset values that are deemed to be other than temporary, which may result in impairment losses. There can be no assurance that continuing fluctuations in price and volume will not occur. If such increased levels of volatility and market turmoil arise or continue, the Company’s operations may be adversely impacted and the trading price of the Subordinate Voting Shares and such other securities may be materially adversely affected.
 
Future sales of Subordinate Voting Shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
 
As of May 14, 2021, there are 70,612,253 Subordinate Voting Shares outstanding and the following Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the conversion, redemption or exercise of derivate securities of Lowell Farms and Indus Holding Company:
 
o
13,803,168 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the redemption of all of the Class B Common Shares of Indus Holding Company (“Indus Class B Common Shares”);
 
o
77,628,692 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the redemption of all of the Class C Common Shares of Indus Holding Company (“Indus Class C Common Shares” and, together with the Indus Class B Common Shares, “Indus Redeemable Shares”) issuable upon conversion of convertible debentures of Indus Holding Company (excluding accrued and unpaid interest) and 78,628,692 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the exercise of warrants issued in the Convertible Debenture Offering;
 
o
11,500,000 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the exercise of the warrants (the “December 2020 Warrants”) issued by the Company (then named Indus Holdings, Inc.) in its December 2020 Unit offering described herein (the “December 2020 Unit Offering”);
 
o
2,411,516 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the exercise of warrants issued by Indus Holding Company prior to the RTO to investors in debentures of Indus Holding Company;
 
o
1,332,710 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the exercise of compensation options held by financial advisors to the Company and/or Indus Holding Company;
 
o
7,313,500 Subordinate Voting Shares are issuable upon the exercise of options issued pursuant to the Company’s equity incentive plans, of which 1,541,000 of such shares were vested as of May 14, 2021; and
 
o
1,735,000 Subordinate Voting Shares are subject to outstanding restricted stock units issued pursuant to the Company’s equity incentive plans, none of which were vested as of May 14, 2021.
  
-21-
 
 
22,643,678 of the outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares were issued in the Lowell Acquisition and are subject to a restriction on resale under Canadian law until June 26, 2021. Furthermore, 5,000,000 of the 22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares issued in the Lowell Acquisition are held in escrow and, absent offsetting claims for indemnification, will be released on November 25, 2021.
 
The remainder of the outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares, as well as any securities issued upon conversion or exercise thereof, may be resold pursuant to Rule 905 under the Securities Act of 1933 or any other applicable exemption from registration, and no such shares are subject to a contractual lock-up restriction.
 
Future sales of Subordinate Voting Shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
 
The Company has experienced negative operating cash flows throughout its history.
 
The Company had negative operating cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Operating cash flows may decline in certain circumstances, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. As a result, the Company may need to allocate a portion of its existing working capital or a portion of the net proceeds of the Offering or any future securities issuance to fund any such negative operating cash flow in future periods.
 
Risks Related to the Support Agreement
 
The Company and Indus Holding Company are parties to an amended and restated support agreement dated as of April 10, 2020. The purpose of the support agreement is to ensure that pro rata ownership of the Company’s operating subsidiaries by holders of Subordinate Voting Shares relative to holders of Indus Redeemable Shares is not diluted as Indus Class B Common Shares and Indus Class C Common Shares are redeemed for Subordinate Voting Shares or as other securities are issued by the Company. In order to avoid such dilution, the support agreement provides that upon any redemption of Indus Class B Common Shares or Indus Class C Common Shares for Subordinate Voting Shares, or upon any issuance of additional Subordinate Voting Share by the Company, an equivalent number of Indus Class A Common Shares will be issued to the Company by Indus Holding Company. If the support agreement does not operate as intended, and in particular if the Indus Class A Common Shares issued to the Company in the future are not sufficient to maintain an equivalent per share interest of the Subordinate Voting Shares and the Indus Redeemable Shares in the Company’s operating subsidiaries, the participation of holders of Subordinate Voting Shares in any dividends and liquidating distributions by such operating subsidiaries could be adversely impacted.
 
The Company is a tax resident of both the U.S. and Canada and is, therefore, generally subject to both U.S. and Canadian taxation, which may adversely affect its results of operations.
 
The Company is treated as a United States company for U.S. Federal income tax purposes under section 7874 of the Code and is subject to United States Federal income tax on its worldwide income. However, for Canadian income tax purposes, the Company is, regardless of any application of section 7874 of the Code, treated as a resident of Canada for purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada). As a result, the Company is subject to taxation both in Canada and the United States, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
 
We are not selling any securities under this prospectus and we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by the Selling Securityholders. 
 
-22-
 
 
SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS
 
The Selling Securityholders may from time to time offer and sell any or all of our securities set forth below pursuant to this prospectus. When we refer to “Selling Securityholders” in this prospectus, we mean the persons listed in the table below, and the pledgees, donees, permitted transferees, assignees, successors and others who later come to hold any of the Selling Securityholders’ interests in our securities other than through a public sale.
 
The following table sets forth, as of the date of this prospectus:
 
the name of the Selling Securityholders for whom we are registering shares for resale to the public,
the number of shares that the Selling Securityholders beneficially owned prior to the offering for resale of the securities under this prospectus,
the number of shares that may be offered for resale for the account of the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, and
the number and percentage of shares to be beneficially owned by the Selling Securityholders after the offering of the resale securities (assuming all of the offered shares are sold by the Selling Securityholders).
 
This table is prepared solely based on information supplied to us by the listed Selling Securityholders.
 
Selling Securityholder
 
Number of Subordinate Voting Shares Owned Prior to Offering
 
 
Percentage of Subordinate Voting Shares Owned Prior to Offering
 
 
Number of Subordinate Voting Shares Offered for Sale
 
 
Number of Shares of Subordinate Voting Shares Owned Assuming Sale of All Shares Offered
 
 
Percentage of Subordinate Voting Shares Owned Assuming Sale of All Shares Offered
 
The Hacienda Company, LLC(1)
  22,643,678 
  32%
  22,643,678 
  0 
  0%
 
(1)
The business address of the Selling Securityholder is: In Care of: Eisner LLP, 9601 Wilshire Blvd, 7th Floor, Beverly Hills, CA 90210.
 
Acquisition of Resale Securities
 
22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares of Lowell Farms Inc. will be offered for resale by the Selling Securityholders. The Selling Securityholders acquired the 22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares as part of the consideration for the Lowell Acquisition.
 
-23-
 
 
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
 
 General
 
We are a California-based cannabis company with vertically integrated operations including large scale cultivation, extraction, processing, manufacturing, branding, packaging and wholesale distribution to retail dispensaries. We manufacture and distribute proprietary and third-party brands throughout the State of California, the largest cannabis market in the world. We also provide manufacturing, extraction and distribution services to third-party cannabis and cannabis branding companies.
 
On February 25, 2021, we acquired the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes trademark brands, product portfolio and production assets from Hacienda and its subsidiaries. The Lowell Acquisition expanded our product offerings by adding a highly regarded, mature line of premium branded cannabis pre-rolls, including infused pre-rolls, to our product portfolio under the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes brands. The Lowell Acquisition also expanded our offerings of premium packaged flower, concentrates, and vape products. We believe our pre-existing strengths in cultivation and sourcing will enhance the value of the brands and products acquired in the Lowell Acquisition.
 
The Lowell Acquisition also substantially broadened our customer base by adding highly developed direct-to-consumer channels to complement our pre-existing network of retail dispensary customers. This addition to our customer base has resulted in broader geographic coverage in California by the combined business.
 
We operate a 225,000 square foot greenhouse cultivation facility in Monterey County, a 15,000 square foot manufacturing and laboratory facility in Salinas, California, a separate 20,000 square foot distribution facility in Salinas, California and a warehouse depot and distribution vehicles in Los Angeles, California.
 
Product Offerings
 
Our product offerings includes flower, vape pens, oils, extracts, chocolate edibles, mints, gummies, beverages, tinctures and pre-rolls. We sell our products under owned and third-party brands.
 
Brands we own include the following:
 
o
Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes - premium packaged flower, pre-roll, concentrates, and vape products.
 
o
Cypress Reserve – a premium flower brand reserved for the Company’s highest potency harvests from its greenhouses.
 
o
Flavor Extracts – provides crumble and terp sugar (which is an edible cannabis product with isolated and enhanced flavor and aromas) products that are hand-selected for optimum flavor and premium color.
 
o
Kaizen – a premium brand offering a full spectrum of cannabis concentrates.
 
o
House Weed – a value driven flower and concentrates offering, delivering a flavorful and potent experience with dependable quality.
 
o
Moon – offers a range of cannabis bars, bites and fruit chews in a variety of delicious flavors, focused on high-potency, high-quality and high-value.
 
o
Altai – combines confections with high quality cannabis to create delicious hand-crafted and award-winning edibles.
 
o
Humble Flower – a premium brand offering cannabis-infused topical creams, balms and oils.
 
-24-
 
 
o
Original Pot Company – infuses its baked edibles with high quality cannabis.
 
o
CannaStripe – offers a range of gummy edibles, high-quality, high-value.
 
o
Acme Elixirs – provides high quality, lab-tested vaporizing pens.
 
The Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes brands were acquired in the Lowell Acquisition. Our remaining brands were developed prior to the acquisition.
 
We exclusively manufacture and distribute Dr. Raw tinctures and topicals in California. We also provide third party extraction processing and third-party distribution services, and bulk extraction concentrates and flower to licensed manufacturers and distributors. Our focus during 2020 was on our owned brands and limiting the number of third-party brands manufactured and distributed. The Lowell Acquisition is a significant expansion of this strategy.
 
Cultivation
 
We conduct cannabis cultivation operations located in Monterey County, California. We currently operate a cultivation facility which includes four greenhouses totaling approximately 225,000 square feet sited on 10 acres located on Zabala Road. Farming cannabis at this scale enables us to curate specialized strains and maintain greater control over the quantity and quality of cannabis available for our products, preserving the consistency of our flower and cannabis feedstocks for our extraction laboratory and product manufacturing operations.
 
The first harvest was in the third quarter of calendar 2017. We are nearing completion of a series of facility upgrades to our greenhouses and supporting infrastructure, which when completed will increase facility output approximately four times from that generated in 2019. These facility improvements include separate grow rooms configured with drop-shades, supplemental lighting, upgraded electrical capability with environmental controls and automated fertigation, raised gutter height in two of the greenhouses and expanded dry room capacity capable of handling the increased output. We harvested approximately 9,000 and 17,000 pounds of flower in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and are currently projecting to harvest up to 40,000 to 45,000 pounds in 2021 as a result of these facility upgrades and improvements. We have invested approximately $6 million in our greenhouse renovations to date with planned additional investments. The completion and commissioning of the renovated greenhouses and headhouse is expected to further reduce unit costs of cultivation and make available additional cannabis flower and feedstocks for our extraction and processing, packaging and distribution operations.
 
We maintain a strict quality control process which facilitates a predictable output yield of pesticide-free products.
 
Extraction
 
Extraction operations were first launched by us in the third quarter of 2017 with the commissioning of our 5,000 square foot licensed laboratory within our Salinas manufacturing facility. The lab contains six separate rooms that can each house one independent closed loop volatile extraction machine (meaning that the machine does not expose the products to open air), which are designed to process the cannabis through the application of hydrocarbon or ethanol solvents, to extract certain concentrated resins and oils from the dried cannabis. This process is known as volatile extraction, which is an efficient and rapid method of extracting cannabis. These resins, oils and concentrates are sold as ingestible products known as “shatter”, rosin, wax, sugar, diamonds, “caviar” and “crumble”.
 
 We currently own and operate five closed loop volatile extraction machines, each housed in a separate room, and each having the capacity to process approximately 100 pounds of dry product per day yielding approximately 5 kilograms of cannabis concentrates. We also currently own and operate 14 purge ovens to work in conjunction with the five extraction units in the laboratory. Purge ovens, also known as vacuum ovens, are used after the processing by the extraction units to remove the solvents from the end-product in a low pressure and high heat environment.
 
The extraction operations utilize cannabis feedstocks from our cultivation site, supplemented with feedstock acquired from multiple third-party cultivations. Concentrate production is packaged as branded extracts, such as crumble, shatter, wax and sugar for distribution, incorporated into its manufactured edible products and sold in bulk to other licensed enterprises. In addition, extraction is provided on a fee-based service on third-party material.
 
-25-
 
 
Manufacturing
 
Our manufacturing facility is located in Salinas, California and houses our edible product operations and extraction and distillation operations. The edible product operations utilize internally produced cannabis oil, which can also be supplied from multiple external sources. Our manufacturing operations produce a wide variety of cannabis-infused products in our 15,000 square foot manufacturing facility in Salinas. Our products include chocolate confections, beverages, baked goods, hard and soft non-chocolate confections, and topical lotions and balms. Lowell Farms utilizes modern commercial production equipment and employs food grade manufacturing protocols, including industry-leading standard operating procedures designed so that its products meet stringent quality standards. We have implemented updated compliance, packaging and labeling standards to meet the requirements of the California Medical and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act with the advent of adult use legalization in California.
 
We also operate an automated flower packaging line and a pre-roll assembly line for making finished goods in those respective categories with feedstock grown by the Lowell Farms cultivation operations.
 
Distribution and Distribution Services
 
We have a primary distribution center, warehouse and packing facility located in Salinas, California and a service center and distribution depot in Los Angeles, California. We provide physical warehousing and delivery to retail dispensary customers throughout the State of California for our manufactured products as well as third party branded products distributed on behalf of third parties. In addition, we distribute all finished goods produced at the Hacienda facility. Deliveries are made daily to over 80% of the licensed dispensaries in California utilizing a fleet of 39 owned and leased vehicles. We provide warehousing, delivery, customer service and collection services for the third-party brands. We will increase our fleet of vehicles as necessary to meet delivery requirements from increased proprietary and third-party brand sales.
 
Technology Platform
 
We maintain an automated, on-demand supply chain logistics platform, utilizing e-commerce, enterprise resource planning and other technology to manage product movement, order taking and logistics needs.
 
Inventory Management
 
We have comprehensive inventory management procedures, which are compliant with the rules set forth by the California Department of Consumer Affairs’ Bureau of Cannabis Control and all other applicable state and local laws, regulations, ordinances, and other requirements. These procedures ensure strict control over Lowell Farms’ cannabis and cannabis product inventory from cultivation or manufacture to sale and delivery to a licensed dispensary, distributor or manufacturer, or disposal as cannabis waste. Such inventory management procedures also include measures to prevent contamination and maintain the quality of the products cultivated, manufactured or distributed.
 
Sources, Pricing and Availability of Raw Materials, Component Parts or Finished Products
 
We presently source all flower feedstock for sale primarily from our cultivation facility. We have developed relationships with local cannabis growers whereby flower quantities are readily available at competitive prices should the sourcing need arise. We source our biomass needs in extraction from our cultivation facility and from third-party suppliers. Remaining biomass material is readily available from multiple sources at competitive prices. Lowell Farms manufactures substantially all cannabis oil and distillate needs from its internal extraction operations. A small amount of specialized cannabis oil is procured from multiple external sources at competitive prices. Lowell Farms manufactures all finished goods for its proprietary brands. Third party distributed brand product is sourced directly from third party partners.
 
-26-
 
 
U.S. Cannabis Market
 
The emergence of the legal cannabis sector in the United States, both for medical and adult use, has been rapid as more states adopt regulations for its production and sale. A majority of Americans now live in a state where cannabis is legal in some form and almost a quarter of the population lives in states in which both medical and recreational use is permitted as a matter of, and in accordance with, applicable state and local laws.1 According to Fortune Business Insights, the global legal marijuana market is anticipated to reach a value of US$97.35 billion by the end of 2026 from US$10.60 billion in 2018. The market is predicted to rise at a compounded annual growth rate of 32.6% during the period 2019 to 2026.2
 
The use of cannabis and cannabis derivatives to treat or alleviate the symptoms of a wide variety of chronic conditions, while not recognized by the FDA, has been accepted by a majority of citizens with a growing acceptance by the medical community. A review of the research, published in 2015 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, found solid evidence that cannabis can treat pain and muscle spasms.3 The pain component is particularly important, because other studies have suggested that cannabis can replace pain patients’ use of highly addictive, potentially deadly opiates.4 Although hemp, defined as cannabis and derivatives of cannabis with not more than 0.3% THC, has been descheduled from the Controlled Substances Act, the FDA has regulatory oversight over foods, drugs, cosmetics containing cannabis under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1938. It is possible that as the federal and state agencies legalize certain products, the FDA may issue rules and regulations, including good manufacturing practices related to the growth, cultivation, harvesting and processing of such products, even if they are not marketed as drugs. It is possible that the FDA would require that facilities where medical-use cannabis is grown to register with the FDA and comply with certain federally prescribed regulations, certifications, testing, or other requirements. The potential impact on the cannabis industry is uncertain and could include the imposition of new costs, requirements, and prohibitions.
 
Although we are not currently engaged in the production or distribution of medical marijuana products, the FDA has jurisdiction over our flower, oil, vape and edible products, among others. The FDA is currently taking action in the form of Warning Letters, but may also take more extreme enforcement such as recalls, disgorgement or penalties.  If we are unable to comply with regulations or facility registration as prescribed by the FDA, it may have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
 
Polls conducted throughout the United States consistently show overwhelming support for the legalization of medical cannabis, together with strong majority support for the full legalization of recreational adult-use cannabis. As of November 11, 2019, “Around nine-in-ten Americans favor legalization for recreational or medical purposes” and “Only 8% say it should not be legal.”5 These are large increases in public support over the past 40 years in favor of legal cannabis use.
 
Today cannabis is legal in some form in a total of 36 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. On the recreational side, there are currently 15 States, plus the District of Columbia and four U.S. territories, in which the recreational sale of cannabis has been approved. These States include Oregon, Washington, Nevada, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Michigan, Vermont, Alaska, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, Arizona, South Dakota and Montana. With respect to medical marijuana, as more research centers study the effects of cannabis-based products in treating or addressing therapeutic needs, and assuming that research findings demonstrate that such products are effective in doing so, management believes that the size of the U.S. medical cannabis market will also continue to grow as more States expand their medical marijuana programs and new States legalize medical marijuana. Although the Company only operates in the State of California, it may seek opportunities to expand into other States within the United States that have legalized cannabis use either medicinally or recreationally.
_______________
1 Nichols, Chris (2018). Do a majority of Americans live in states with legal marijuana. https://www.politifact.com/california/statements/2018/apr/19/john-chiang/do-majority-americans-live-states-legal-marijuana/
2 Cannabis/Marijuana Market Size. (August 2019) Retrieved from https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/cannabis-marijuana-market-100219 
3 Grant, Igor MD (2015). Medical Use of Cannabinoids. Journal of American Medical Association, 314: 16, 1750-1751. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.11429.
4 Bachhuber, MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry CL. (2014). Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 174(10):1668-1673. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005.
5 Pew Research Organization (November 11, 2019). Two-thirds of Americans support marijuana legalization. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/14/americans-support-marijuana-legalization/
 
-27-
 
 
Notwithstanding that 36 states and the District of Columbia have now legalized adult-use and/or medical cannabis, cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law with cannabis listed as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substance Act, or CSA. See “United States Regulatory Environment”.
 
Growth Strategy
 
While the legalization of cannabis throughout the United States continues to expand both in the adult use (recreational) and medical markets, and the size of the U.S. cannabis market will continue to provide growth opportunities, management believes that focusing on the substantial California market and becoming profitable and self-sustaining is the appropriate near-term growth strategy for the Company.
 
We plan to capitalize on the significant increase in cannabis consumption in California through the robust marketing of the recently acquired Lowell branded products and our other proprietary brands, the continued expansion of our brand and distribution footprint and the exploitation of our increased cultivation capacity. We will selectively seek opportunities to further expand our brands and operations in California through acquisitions or alliances.
 
We may also seek to expand our cultivation footprint within California by either purchasing an existing cultivation business or by entering into a lease arrangement with a suitable property to develop cultivation facilities. We currently have no retail facilities within the state of California but continue to evaluate such opportunities and could seek to enter retail at a future date.
 
Also, we may consider, but do not currently have definitive plans or timelines for our expansion beyond California as these markets continue to expand.
 
Competitive Conditions
 
We compete with other branded licensed cultivators, manufacturers and distributors, offering similar products and services, within California.
 
Currently, the California cannabis industry is largely comprised of small to medium-sized entities. We believe that the vast majority of our competitors are relatively small operations. Over time, it is expected that within California the industry will begin to consolidate as market-share will increasingly favor larger and more sophisticated operators.
 
We expect to face additional competition from new entrants. To remain competitive, we expect to invest in scale, people, processes and technology to maintain cost and product leadership over our competitors.
 
We may not have sufficient resources to maintain research and development, marketing, sales and support efforts on a competitive basis, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
 
Also, we expect to face continued competition from the illicit or “black-market” commercial activities that still operate within the state. Despite state-level legalization of cannabis in the United States, such operations remain abundant and present substantial competition to Lowell Farms. In particular, illicit operations, because they are largely clandestine, are not required to comply with the extensive regulations with which we must comply in order to conduct business, and accordingly may have significantly lower costs of operation. It is estimated that the current illicit cannabis market in California exceeds $8.5 billion.6
 
Intangible Property
 
To date, we have 11 registered federal trademarks with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and 3 California state trademark registrations. In addition, we have 8 federal trademark application pending. We own over 100 website domains, including www.lowellfarms.com, and numerous social media accounts across all major platforms. Lowell Farms maintains strict standards and operating procedures regarding its intellectual property, including the regular use of nondisclosure, confidentiality, and intellectual property assignment agreements.
 
_______________ 
6 https://www.northbaybusinessjournal.com/article/business/analyst-california-cannabis-market-isnt-slowed-by-covid-and-should-reach/
-28-
 
 
Lowell Farms has developed numerous proprietary technologies and processes. These proprietary technologies and processes include its information system software, cultivation, edible manufacturing and extraction techniques, quality and compliance processes and new product development processes. While actively exploring the patentability of these techniques and processes, Lowell Farms relies on non-disclosure/confidentiality arrangements and trade secret protection. Lowell Farms has invested significant resources towards developing recognizable and unique brands consistent with premium companies in analogous industries.
 
The USPTO may deny federal trademark registration to any name, product, or other assets that violate the law, including cannabis products. However, hemp-derived goods and CBD products with less than 0.3% THC, as well as ancillary products or services, may be eligible for federal trademark registration. Additionally, the USPTO may accept trademark applications for consulting services or goods that do not directly involve the cannabis flower, such as computer software, educational platforms, and brand apparel. Cannabis products, goods, and services that do not meet the USPTO standard for trademark registration may qualify for state trademark registration in states where such products, goods, and services have been legalized.
 
No guarantee can be given that Lowell Farms will be able to successfully assert its trademark rights, nor can the company guarantee that its trademark registrations will not be invalidated, circumvented or challenged. Any such invalidity, particularly with respect to a product name, or a successful intellectual property challenge or infringement proceeding against the company, could have a material adverse effect on Lowell Farms’ business. 
 
Employees
 
Lowell Farms employs personnel with a wide range of skill sets, including those with masters’ and bachelors’ degrees in their respective fields. With respect to cultivation, Lowell Farms recruits individuals with plant science and agricultural experience, and personnel have the practical experience necessary to cultivate high yielding, multiple strain variety cannabis plants and to develop new cannabis strains through selective horticultural practices. With regard to extraction, Lowell Farms recruits individuals with extraction and distillation experience for its product lines, and personnel have the practical experience and knowledge necessary to process the raw, dried cannabis product through volatile extraction processes, thereby generating high yields of cannabis extracts and distillates. In addition, Lowell Farms personnel have the practical experience and knowledge necessary to conduct secondary processing of cannabis biomass into crude cannabis oil, distillate, and concentrates, including shatter, wax and crystals, and to utilize the natural terpenes in cannabis to formulate premium vaporizer oils. Terpenes are the oils that give cannabis plants their smell. They come from the same components as tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) and cannabidiol (“CBD”).
 
With regard to product development and manufacturing, Lowell Farms recruits individuals with professional culinary education for edibles product development for its edibles division, and personnel have extensive experience in confectionary product development and manufacturing, particularly with regard to cannabis edibles, including chocolates, candies, cookies, gummies, beverages and tinctures.
 
With regard to sales & distribution, we recruit employees who retain a high degree of industry awareness and knowledge who can interface with dispensaries state-wide and introduce our products with the intention of retaining and potentially increasing shelf-space and the intention of maintaining or increasing market share. Our sales and distribution teams are important conduits for collecting intelligence on consumer behavior and trends. Our distribution capabilities are critical to building trust with dispensaries that they will receive inventory on a timely and consistent basis.
 
Lowell Farms currently possesses all specialized skills and knowledge it requires, but will continue to compete with other cannabis and manufacturing companies to secure and retain such staff.
 
As of March 1, 2021, we had 224 full-time employees and 2 part-time employees, all of which are located in California. Additionally, Lowell Farms utilizes contract employees in security, cultivation, packaging and warehousing activities. The use of contract employees enables Lowell Farms to manage variable staffing needs and in the case of cultivation and security personnel, access to experienced, qualified and readily available human resources.
 
-29-
 
 
In 2018, the manufacturing personnel of Lowell Farms were organized by UFCW Local 5. In 2020, prior to the completion of a collective bargaining agreement, the union workers voted to decertify UFCW Local 5. Under California law, the holder of a cannabis license with 20 or more employees must enter into a “labor peace agreement” with a union or provide a notarized statement to the Bureau of Cannabis Control that it will do so. A “labor peace agreement” is a private contract between an employer and a union that requires both parties to waive certain rights under federal labor law in connection with union organizing activities. Following the decertification of UFCW Local 5, Lowell Farms provided such a notarized statement to the Bureau of Cannabis Control. There has been no further union organizing activity of which the Company is aware involving its employees.
 
United States Regulatory Environment
 
Below is a discussion of the federal and state-level U.S. regulatory regimes in those jurisdictions where Lowell Farms is currently involved, directly or through its subsidiaries in the cannabis industry. Lowell Farms is directly engaged in the manufacture, extraction, cultivation, package, sale or distribution of cannabis in the adult-use and/or medical industries in the State of California. The Company derives all of its revenues from the cannabis industry in the State of California, which industry is illegal under U.S. federal law. The Company’s cannabis-related activities are compliant with applicable State and local law, and the related licensing framework, and the Company is not aware of any non-compliance with applicable State and local law, and the related licensing framework, by any of the Company’s clients to whom the Company renders services. Nonetheless, such activities remain illegal under U.S. federal law. The enforcement of relevant laws is a significant risk.
 
The Company evaluates, monitors and reassesses this disclosure, and any related risks, on an ongoing basis, and the same will be supplemented and amended to investors in public filings, including in the event of government policy changes or the introduction of new or amended guidance, laws or regulations regarding marijuana regulation. Any non-compliance, citations or notices of violation which may have an impact on the Company’s licenses, business activities or operations will be promptly disclosed by the Company.
 
United States Federal Overview
 
The United States federal government regulates drugs in large part through the CSA. Marijuana, which is a form of cannabis, is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. As a Schedule I controlled substance, the federal Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA, considers marijuana to have a high potential for abuse; no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision. According to the U.S. federal government, cannabis having a concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, greater than 0.3% on a dry weight basis is marijuana. Cannabis with a THC content below 0.3% is classified as hemp. The scheduling of marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance is inconsistent with what we believe to be widely accepted medical uses for marijuana by physicians, researchers, patients, and others. Moreover, as of January 30, 2021 and despite the clear conflict with U.S. federal law, 36 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana for medical use, while 15 of those states and the District of Columbia have legalized the adult-use of cannabis for recreational purposes. In November 2020, voters in Arizona, Montana, New Jersey and South Dakota voted by referendum to legalize marijuana for adult use, and voters in Mississippi and South Dakota voted to legalized marijuana for medical use. As further evidence of the growing conflict between the U.S. federal treatment of cannabis and the societal acceptance of cannabis, the FDA on June 25, 2018 approved Epidiolex. Epidiolex is an oral solution with an active ingredient derived from the cannabis plant for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, in patients two years of age and older. This is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified substance derived from the cannabis plant. In this case, the substance is cannabidiol, or CBD, a chemical component of marijuana that does not contain the psychoactive properties of THC.
 
Unlike in Canada, which uniformly regulates the cultivation, distribution, sale and possession of marijuana at the federal level under the Cannabis Act (Canada), marijuana is largely regulated at the State level in the United States. State laws regulating marijuana are in conflict with the CSA, which makes marijuana use and possession federally illegal. Although certain States and territories of the United States authorize medical or adult-use marijuana production and distribution by licensed or registered entities, under United States federal law, the possession, use, cultivation, and transfer of marijuana and any related drug paraphernalia is illegal. Although our activities are compliant with the applicable State and local laws in California, strict compliance with state and local laws with respect to cannabis may neither absolve us of liability under United States federal law nor provide a defense to any federal criminal action that may be brought against us.
 
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In 2013, as more and more states began to legalize medical and/or adult-use marijuana, the federal government attempted to provide clarity on the incongruity between federal law and these State-level regulatory frameworks. Until 2018, the federal government provided guidance to federal agencies and banking institutions through a series of Department of Justice, or DOJ, memoranda. The most notable of this guidance came in the form of a memorandum issued by former U.S. Deputy Attorney General James Cole on August 29, 2013, which we refer to as the Cole Memorandum.
 
The Cole Memorandum offered guidance to federal agencies on how to prioritize civil enforcement, criminal investigations and prosecutions regarding marijuana in all states and quickly set a standard for marijuana-related businesses to comply with. The Cole Memorandum put forth eight prosecution priorities:
 
 
1.
Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;
 
 
2.
Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs and cartels;
 
 
3.
Preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;
 
 
4.
Preventing the state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;
 
 
5.
Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;
 
 
6.
Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;
 
 
7.
Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and
 
 
8.
Preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.
 
On January 4, 2018, former United States Attorney General Jeff Sessions rescinded the Cole Memorandum by issuing a new memorandum to all United States Attorneys, which we refer to as the Sessions Memo. Rather than establishing national enforcement priorities particular to marijuana-related crimes in jurisdictions where certain marijuana activity was legal under State law, the Sessions Memo simply rescinded the Cole Memorandum and instructed that “[i]n deciding which marijuana activities to prosecute... with the [DOJ’s] finite resources, prosecutors should follow the well-established principles that govern all federal prosecutions.” Namely, these include the seriousness of the offense, history of criminal activity, deterrent effect of prosecution, the interests of victims, and other principles.
 
Neither Attorney General William Barr, who succeeded Attorney General Sessions, nor any subsequent Acting Attorney General provided a clear policy directive for the United States as it pertains to State-legal marijuana-related activities. President-elect Biden has nominated Merrick Garland to serve as Attorney General in his administration. It is not yet known whether the Department of Justice under President-elect Biden and Attorney General Garland, if confirmed, will re-adopt the Cole Memorandum or announce a substantive marijuana enforcement policy.
 
Nonetheless, there is no guarantee that State laws legalizing and regulating the sale and use of marijuana will not be repealed or overturned, or that local governmental authorities will not limit the applicability of State laws within their respective jurisdictions. Unless and until the United States Congress amends the CSA with respect to marijuana (and as to the timing or scope of any such potential amendments there can be no assurance), there is a risk that federal authorities may enforce current U.S. federal law. Currently, in the absence of uniform federal guidance, as had been established by the Cole memorandum, enforcement priorities are determined by respective United States Attorneys.
 
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As an industry best practice, despite the recent rescission of the Cole Memorandum, the Company abides by the following standard operating policies and procedures to ensure compliance with the guidance provided by the Cole Memorandum:
 
1.
ensure that its operations are compliant with all licensing requirements as established by the applicable State, county, municipality, town, township, borough, and other political/administrative divisions;
 
2.
ensure that its cannabis related activities adhere to the scope of the licensing obtained (for example: in the States where cannabis is permitted only for adult-use, the products are only sold to individuals who meet the requisite age requirements);
 
3.
implement policies and procedures to ensure that cannabis products are not distributed to minors;
 
4.
implement policies and procedures to ensure that funds are not distributed to criminal enterprises, gangs or cartels;
 
5.
implement an inventory tracking system and necessary procedures to ensure that such compliance system is effective in tracking inventory and preventing diversion of cannabis or cannabis products into those States where cannabis is not permitted by State law, or across any State lines in general;
 
6.
ensure that its State-authorized cannabis business activity is not used as a cover or pretense for trafficking of other illegal drugs, is engaged in any other illegal activity or any activities that are contrary to any applicable anti-money laundering statutes; and
 
7.
ensure that its products comply with applicable regulations and contain necessary disclaimers about the contents of the products to prevent adverse public health consequences from cannabis use and prevent impaired driving.
 
In addition, the Company conducts background checks to ensure that the principals and management of its operating subsidiaries are of good character, have not been involved with other illegal drugs, engaged in illegal activity or activities involving violence, or use of firearms in cultivation, manufacturing or distribution of cannabis. The Company will also conduct ongoing reviews of the activities of its cannabis businesses, the premises on which they operate and the policies and procedures that are related to possession of cannabis or cannabis products outside of the licensed premises, including the cases where such possession is permitted by regulation. See “Risk Factors”.
 
Although the Cole Memorandum has been rescinded, one legislative safeguard for the medical marijuana industry remains in place: Congress has passed a so-called “rider” provision in the Fiscal Years 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 Consolidated Appropriations Acts to prevent the federal government from using congressionally appropriated funds to enforce federal marijuana laws against regulated medical marijuana actors operating in compliance with State and local law. The rider is known as the “Rohrabacher-Farr” Amendment after its original lead sponsors (it is also sometimes referred to as the “Rohrabacher-Blumenauer” or “Joyce-Leahy” Amendment, but it is referred to in Registration Statement on Form S-1 as the “Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment”). Most recently, the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment was included in the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2019, which was signed by President Trump on February 14, 2019 and funds the departments of the federal government through the fiscal year ending September 30, 2019. In signing the Act, President Trump issued a signing statement noting that the Act “provides that the DOJ may not use any funds to prevent implementation of medical marijuana laws by various States and territories,” and further stating “I will treat this provision consistent with the President’s constitutional responsibility to faithfully execute the laws of the United States.” While the signing statement can fairly be read to mean that the executive branch intends to enforce the CSA and other federal laws prohibiting the sale and possession of medical marijuana, the president did issue a similar signing statement in 2017 and no major federal enforcement actions followed. On September 27, 2019 the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment was temporarily renewed through a stopgap spending bill and was similarly renewed again on November 21, 2019. The Fiscal Year 2020 omnibus spending bill was ultimately passed on December 20, 2019, making the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment effective through September 30, 2020. In signing the spending bill, President Trump again released a statement similar to the ones he made May 2017 and February 2019 regarding the Rohrabacher-Farr Amendment. On December 27, 2020 the amendment was renewed through the signing of the Fiscal Year 2021 omnibus spending bill, effective through September 30, 2021.
 
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United States Border Entry
 
CBP enforces the laws of the United States as they pertain to lawful travel and trade into and out of the U.S. Crossing the border while in violation of the CSA and other related United States federal laws may result in denied admission, seizures, fines, and apprehension. CBP officers administer determine the admissibility of travelers who are non-U.S. citizens into the United States pursuant to the United States Immigration and Nationality Act. An investment in our Subordinate Voting Shares, if it became known to CBP, could have an impact on a non-U.S. citizen’s admissibility into the United States and could lead to a lifetime ban on admission.
 
Because marijuana remains illegal under United States federal law, those investing in Canadian companies with operations in the United States cannabis industry could face detention, denial of entry, or lifetime bans from the United States for their business associations with United States marijuana businesses. Entry happens at the sole discretion of CBP officers on duty, and these officers have wide latitude to ask questions to determine the admissibility of a non-US citizen or foreign national. The government of Canada has started warning travelers that previous use of marijuana, or any substance prohibited by United States federal laws, could mean denial of entry to the United States. Business or financial involvement in the marijuana industry in the United States could also be reason enough for CBP to deny entry. On September 21, 2018, CBP released a statement outlining its current position with respect to enforcement of the laws of the United States. It stated that Canada’s legalization of cannabis will not change CBP enforcement of United States laws regarding controlled substances and because marijuana continues to be a controlled substance under United States law, working in or facilitating the proliferation of the legal marijuana industry in U.S. states where it is deemed legal may affect admissibility to the United States. As a result, CBP has affirmed that, employees, directors, officers, managers and investors of companies involved in business activities related to marijuana in the United States (such as Lowell Farms), who are not United States citizens, face the risk of being barred from entry into the United States.
 
Anti-Money Laundering Laws and Access to Banking
 
The Company is subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States that involve anti-money laundering, financial recordkeeping and the proceeds of crime, including the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 (referred to herein as the “Bank Secrecy Act”), as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the United States.
 
Additionally, under United States federal law, it may potentially be a violation of federal anti-money laundering statutes for financial institutions to take any proceeds from the sale of any Schedule I controlled substance. Banks and other financial institutions could potentially be prosecuted and convicted of money laundering under the Bank Secrecy Act for providing services to cannabis businesses. Therefore, under the Bank Secrecy Act, banks or other financial institutions that provide a cannabis business with a checking account, debit or credit card, small business loan, or any other financial service could be charged with money laundering or conspiracy.
 
While there has been no change in U.S. federal banking laws to accommodate businesses in the large and increasing number of U.S. states that have legalized medical or adult-use marijuana, FinCEN, in 2014, issued guidance, or the FinCEN Guidance, to prosecutors of money laundering and other financial crimes. The FinCEN Guidance advised prosecutors not to focus their enforcement efforts on banks and other financial institutions that serve marijuana-related businesses so long as that marijuana-related business activities are legal in their state and none of the federal enforcement priorities referenced in the Cole Memorandum are being violated (such as keeping marijuana out of the hands of organized crime). The FinCEN Guidance also clarifies how financial institutions can provide services to marijuana-related businesses consistent with their Bank Secrecy Act obligations, including thorough customer due diligence, but makes it clear that they are doing so at their own risk. The customer due diligence steps typically include:
 
 
1.
Verifying with the appropriate State authorities whether the business is duly licensed and registered;
 
 
2.
Reviewing the license application (and related documentation) submitted by the business for obtaining a State license to operate its marijuana-related business;
 
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3.
Requesting available information about the business and related parties from State licensing and enforcement authorities;
 
 
4.
Developing an understanding of the normal and expected activity for the business, including the types of products to be sold and the type of customers to be served (e.g., medical versus adult-use customers);
 
 
5.
Ongoing monitoring of publicly available sources for adverse information about the business and related parties;
 
 
6.
Ongoing monitoring for suspicious activity, including for any of the red flags described in the FinCEN Guidance; and
 
 
7.
Refreshing information obtained as part of customer due diligence on a periodic basis and commensurate with the risk.
 
With respect to information regarding State licensure obtained in connection with such customer due diligence, a financial institution may reasonably rely on the accuracy of information provided by state licensing authorities, where States make such information available.
 
While the FinCEN Guidance decreased some risk for banks and financial institutions considering servicing the cannabis industry, in practice it has not increased banks’ willingness to provide services to marijuana-related businesses. This is because current U.S. federal law does not guarantee banks immunity from prosecution, and it also requires banks and other financial institutions to undertake time-consuming and costly due diligence on each marijuana-related business they accept as a customer.
 
Those State-chartered banks and/or credit unions that have agreed to work with marijuana businesses are typically limiting those accounts to small percentages of their total deposits to avoid creating a liquidity risk. Since, theoretically, the federal government could change the banking laws as it relates to marijuana-related businesses at any time and without notice, these banks and credit unions must keep sufficient cash on hand to be able to return the full value of all deposits from marijuana-related businesses in a single day, while also keeping sufficient liquid capital on hand to service their other customers. Those State-chartered banks and credit unions that do have customers in the marijuana industry can charge marijuana businesses high fees to cover the added cost of ensuring compliance with the FinCEN Guidance.
 
As an industry best practice and consistent with its standard operating procedures, Lowell Farms adheres to all customer due diligence steps in the FinCEN Guidance and any additional requirements imposed by those financial institutions it utilizes. However, in the event that any of our operations, or any proceeds thereof, any dividends or distributions therefrom, or any profits or revenues accruing from such operations in the United States were found to be in violation of anti-money laundering legislation or otherwise, such transactions could be viewed as proceeds of crime under one or more of the statutes noted above or any other applicable legislation. This could restrict or otherwise jeopardize our ability to declare or pay dividends or effect other distributions.
 
In the United States, the “SAFE Banking Act” has been put forth which would grant banks and other financial institutions immunity from federal criminal prosecution for servicing marijuana-related businesses if the underlying marijuana business follows State law. The SAFE Banking Act was adopted by the House of Representatives during the 2020 legislative session. On December 4, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives also passed the Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act. The MORE Act would remove marijuana from the CSA and eliminate criminal penalties for individuals who manufacture, distribute or possess marijuana. While there is strong support in the public and within Congress for legislation such as the Safe Banking Act and the MORE Act, there can be no assurance that any such legislation will be enacted. In both Canada and the United States, transactions involving banks and other financial institutions are both difficult and unpredictable under the current legal and regulatory landscape. Legislative changes could help to reduce or eliminate these challenges for companies in the cannabis space and would improve the efficiency of both significant and minor financial transactions.
 
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Tax Concerns
 
An additional challenge for marijuana-related businesses is that the provisions of Internal Revenue Code Section 280E are being applied by the IRS to businesses operating in the medical and adult-use marijuana industry. Section 280E prohibits marijuana businesses from deducting their ordinary and necessary business expenses, forcing them to pay higher effective federal tax rates than similar companies in other industries. The effective tax rate on a marijuana business depends on how large its ratio of non-deductible expenses is to its total revenues. Therefore, businesses in the legal cannabis industry may be less profitable than they would otherwise be. Furthermore, although the IRS issued a clarification allowing the deduction of cost of goods sold, the scope of such eligible cost items is interpreted very narrowly, and the bulk of operating costs and general administrative costs are not permitted to be capitalized as part of inventory cost basis and deducted as part of cost of goods sold, or otherwise deducted from gross profit, in determining taxable income.
 
The 2018 Farm Bill
 
CBD is a non-psychoactive chemical found in cannabis and is often derived from hemp, which contains, at most, only trace amounts of THC. On December 20, 2018, President Trump signed the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (popularly known as the 2018 Farm Bill) into law. Until the 2018 Farm Bill became law, hemp fell within the definition of “marijuana” under the CSA and the DEA classified hemp as a Schedule I controlled substance because hemp is part of the cannabis plant.
 
The 2018 Farm Bill defines hemp as the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant with a delta-9 THC concentration of not more than 0.3% by dry weight and removes hemp from the CSA. The 2018 Farm Bill requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or USDA, to, among other things: (1) evaluate and approve regulatory plans approved by individual states for the cultivation and production of industrial hemp, and (2) promulgate regulations and guidelines to establish and administer a program for the cultivation and production of hemp in the U.S. The regulations promulgated by the USDA will be in lieu of those States not adopting State-specific hemp regulations. Hemp and products derived from it, such as CBD, may then be sold into commerce and transported across State lines provided that the hemp from which any product is derived was cultivated under a license issued by an authorized state program approved by the USDA and otherwise meets the definition of hemp. The 2018 Farm Bill also explicitly preserved the authority of the FDA to regulate hemp-derived products under the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The Company expects that the FDA will promulgate its own rules for the regulation of hemp-derived products in the coming year. Notwithstanding the pending FDA rules, on October 29, 2019, the USDA published its proposed rules for the regulation of hemp, (referred to herein as the “USDA Rule”). The USDA Rule will go into effect immediately upon the conclusion of the public comment period and publication in the federal register by the USDA. The USDA Rule, among other things, sets minimum standards for the cultivation and production of hemp, as well as requirements for laboratory testing of hemp.
 
State Level Overview and Compliance Summary
 
In the United States, cannabis is largely regulated at the State level. Although California authorizes medical and adult-use marijuana production and distribution by licensed entities, and numerous other states have legalized marijuana in some form, under U.S. federal law, the possession, use, cultivation, and transfer of marijuana and any related drug paraphernalia remains illegal, and any such acts are criminal acts under U.S. federal law. Although we believe that our business activities are compliant with applicable State and local laws, strict compliance with State and local laws with respect to marijuana may neither absolve us of liability under U.S. federal law, nor provide a defense to any federal proceeding which may be brought against us. Any such proceedings brought against us may result in a material adverse effect on our business.
 
California Regulatory Landscape
 
In 1996, California was the first State to legalize medical marijuana through Proposition 215, the Compassionate Use Act of 1996. This provided an affirmative defense for defendants charged with the use, possession and cultivation of medical marijuana by patients with a physician recommendation for treatment of cancer, anorexia, AIDS, chronic pain, spasticity, glaucoma, arthritis, migraine, or any other illness for which marijuana provides relief. In 2003, Senate Bill 420 was signed into law, decriminalizing the use, possession, and collective cultivation of medical marijuana, and establishing an optional identification card system for medical marijuana patients.
 
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In September 2015, the California legislature passed three bills collectively known as the “Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act,” or MCRSA. The MCRSA established a licensing and regulatory framework for medical marijuana businesses in California. The system created testing laboratories and distributors. Edible infused product manufacturers would require either volatile solvent or non-volatile solvent manufacturing licenses depending on their specific extraction methodology. Multiple agencies would oversee different aspects of the program and businesses would require a State license and local approval to operate. However, in November 2016, voters in California overwhelmingly passed Proposition 64, the “Adult Use of Marijuana Act,” or AUMA, creating an adult-use marijuana program for adult-use 21 years of age or older. In June 2017, the California State Legislature passed Senate Bill No. 94, known as Medicinal and Adult-Use Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act, or MAUCRSA, which amalgamated MCRSA and AUMA to provide a set of regulations to govern the medical and adult-use licensing regime for marijuana businesses in the State of California. MAUCRSA went into effect on January 1, 2018. The three primary licensing agencies that regulate marijuana at the state level are the Bureau of Cannabis Control, or BCC, California Department of Food and Agriculture, or CDFA, and the California Department of Public Health, or CDPH.
 
One of the central features of MAUCRSA is known as “local control.” In order to legally operate a medical or adult-use marijuana business in California, an operator must have both a local and State license. This requires license-holders to operate in cities or counties with marijuana licensing programs. Cities and counties in California are allowed to determine the number of licenses they will issue to marijuana operators, or, alternatively, can choose to ban marijuana licenses.
 
Licenses
 
Once an operator obtains local approval, the operator must obtain State licenses before conducting any commercial marijuana activity. There are multiple license categories that cover all commercial activity. Lowell Farms and its subsidiaries are licensed to operate Medical and Adult-Use Manufacturing, Nursery, Cultivation and Distribution facilities under applicable California and local jurisdictional law. Lowell Farms’ licenses permit it to possess, cultivate, process, dispense and wholesale medical and adult-use cannabis in the State of California pursuant to the terms of the various licenses issued by the BCC, California Department of Public Health (“CDPH”) and California Department of Food and Agriculture (“CDFA”) under the provision of the MAUCRSA and California Assembly Bill No. 133. The licenses are independently issued for each approved activity for use at the Lowell Farms facilities in California.
 
The following licenses are held by Cypress Manufacturing Company:
 
Agency
License
City/County
Type of License
CDFA
CCL18-0003496
Monterey County
Nursery
CDFA
CCL18-0003514
Monterey County
Processor
CDFA
CCL18-0003504 – CCL 18-0003509
Monterey County
Cultivation: Small Mixed-Light Tier 1
CDFA
CCL18-0003497 – CCL 18-0003503
Monterey County
Cultivation: Small Mixed-Light Tier 2
BCC
C11 0000816 LIC
Salinas
Distributor Provisional (Salinas)
BCC
C11 0000685
Los Angeles
Distributor Provisional (Los Angeles)
CDPH
CDPH-10002196
Salinas
Manufacturing Type 7: Volatile Extraction
 
California State and local licenses, including for the City of Los Angeles, are renewed annually. Each year, licensees are required to submit a renewal application per guidelines published by the BCC. While renewals are annual, there is no limit on the number of permitted annual renewals. To renew a DCR license, a renewal application and renewal fee are required to be paid by the licensee no earlier than 120 calendar days before the expiration of the license, and no later than 60 calendar days before the expiration of the license. At the time of a license renewal application, a licensee must include updated annual licensing documents. As part of the renewal process, the DCR may require modification to the licensee’s security plan. To renew a license, a licensee must be in good standing as required by the DCR and shall not be delinquent on any City tax or fee.
 
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In respect of the renewal process, provided that the requisite renewal fees are paid, the renewal application is submitted in a timely manner, and there are no material violations noted against the applicable license, Lowell Farms would expect to receive the applicable renewed license in the ordinary course of business. While Lowell Farms’ compliance controls have been developed to mitigate the risk of any material violations of a license arising, there is no assurance that Lowell Farms’ licenses will be renewed in the future in a timely manner. Any unexpected delays or costs associated with the licensing renewal process could impede the ongoing or planned operations of Lowell Farms and have a material adverse effect on Lowell Farms’ business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
 
California License and Regulations
 
The Adult-Use and Medicinal Cultivation licenses that have been granted to Lowell Farms permit cannabis cultivation activity, which means any activity involving the planting, growing, harvesting, drying, curing, grading or trimming of cannabis. Such licenses further permit the production of a limited number of non-manufactured cannabis products and the sales of cannabis to certain licensed entities within the State of California for resale or manufacturing purposes.
 
Lowell Farms’ Adult-Use and Medicinal Manufacturing licenses permit Lowell Farms to extract concentrated cannabis, THC, CBD and other cannabis extracts from cannabis plants, then convert them to cannabis concentrates, edibles, balms, beverages, vapes and a variety of other consumer goods. Lowell Farms also packages and labels these goods, including processed flower (the smokable part of the cannabis plant) for wholesale delivery.
 
The Adult-Use and Medicinal Distribution licenses permit Lowell Farms to complete cannabis related distribution activity which means the procurement, sale, and transportation of cannabis and cannabis products between licensed entities. Distribution activity is permissible to and from certain Lowell Farms and non-Lowell Farms licensees.
 
In the State of California, only cannabis that is grown in California can be sold in the state. Although California is not a vertically integrated system, Lowell Farms is vertically integrated and has the capabilities to cultivate, harvest, manufacture and wholesale cannabis and cannabis products to licensed retail dispensaries. Under manufacturing, distribution and cultivation licenses, the State of California also allows Lowell Farms to make a wholesale purchase of cannabis from, or a distribution of cannabis and cannabis product to, another licensed entity within the state.
 
California – Local Licensure, Zoning and Land Use Requirements
 
To obtain a State license, cannabis operators must first obtain local authorization, which is a prerequisite to obtaining State licensure. All three State regulatory agencies require confirmation from the applicable locality that an applicant is in compliance with local requirements and has either been granted authorization to, upon State licensure, continue previous cannabis activities or commence cannabis operations. One of the basic aspects of obtaining local authorization is compliance with all local zoning and land use requirements. Local governments are permitted to prohibit or otherwise regulate the types and number of cannabis businesses allowed in their locality. Some localities have limited the number of authorizations an entity may hold in total or for various types of cannabis activity. Others have tiered the authorization process, granting the initial rounds of local authorization to applicants that previously conducted cannabis activity pursuant to the CUA or those that meet the locality’s definition of social equity.
 
California – Record-Keeping and Continuous Reporting Requirements
 
California’s State license application process additionally requires comprehensive criminal history, regulatory history and personal disclosures for all beneficial owners. Any criminal convictions or civil penalties or judgments occurring after licensure must promptly be reported to the regulatory agency from which the licensee holds a license. State licenses must be renewed annually. Disclosure requirements for local authorization may vary, but generally tend to mirror the State’s requirements.
 
Licensees must also keep detailed records pertaining to various aspects of the business for up to seven years. Such records must be easily accessible by the regulatory agency from which the licensee holds a license. Additionally, licensees must record all business transactions, which must be uploaded to the statewide traceability system. Lowell Farms is in compliance in all material respects with these record-keeping and disclosure requirements.
 
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Storage and Security
 
To ensure the safety and security of cannabis business premises and to maintain adequate controls against the diversion, theft, and loss of cannabis or cannabis products, Lowell Farms is
required to do the following:
 
o
maintain fully operational security alarm systems;
 
o
contract for state-certified security guard services;
 
o
maintain video surveillance systems that records continuously 24 hours a day and maintains those recordings for at least 90 days;
 
o
ensure that the facility’s outdoor premises have sufficient lighting;
 
o
store cannabis and cannabis product only in areas per the premises diagram submitted to the State of California during the licensing process;
 
o
store all cannabis and cannabis products in a secured, locked room or a vault;
 
o
report to local law enforcement within 24 hours after being notified or becoming aware of the theft, diversion, or loss of cannabis; and
 
o
ensure the safe transport of cannabis and cannabis products between licensed facilities, maintain a delivery manifest in any vehicle transporting cannabis and cannabis products. Only vehicles registered with the BCC, that meet BCC distribution requirements, are to be used to transport cannabis and cannabis products.
 
Marijuana Taxes in California
 
Several types of taxes are imposed in California for adult use sale. As of January 1, 2020, cultivators have the choice of being taxed at $9.65, per dry-weight ounce of cannabis flowers or $1.35 per ounce of wet-weight plants. Further, cultivators are required to pay $2.87 per ounce for cannabis leaves. California also imposes an excise tax of 15%. Cities and counties apply their sales tax along with the state’s excise and many cities and counties have also authorized the imposition of special cannabis business taxes which can range from 2% to 10% of gross receipts of the business.
 
The Company has retained legal counsel and/or other advisors in connection with California’s marijuana regulatory program. The Company has developed standard operating procedures for licenses who are operational.
 
California – Operating Procedure Requirements
 
License applicants must submit standard operating procedures describing how the operator will, among other requirements, secure the facility, manage inventory, comply with the State’s seed-to-sale tracking requirements, dispense cannabis, and handle waste, as applicable to the license sought. Once the standard operating procedures are determined compliant and approved by the applicable State regulatory agency, the licensee is required to abide by the processes described and seek regulatory agency approval before any changes to such procedures may be made. Licensees are additionally required to train their employees on compliant operations and are only permitted to transact with other legal and licensed businesses.
 
Lowell Farms complies with these operational and training requirements by systematically training employees in various aspects of regulatory requirements, ensuring that operational and business practices are aligned with regulatory requirements, and by conducting internal audits to ensure compliance and identify areas for further training.
 
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California – Site-Visits & Inspections
 
As a condition of State licensure, operators must consent to random and unannounced inspections of the commercial cannabis facility as well as the facility’s books and records to monitor and enforce compliance with State law. Many localities have also enacted similar standards for inspections, and the State of California has already commenced site-visits and compliance inspections for operators who have received State temporary or annual licensure.
 
California – Compliance Procedures
 
Lowell Farms utilizes MAX ERP, an integrated enterprise compliance platform, which integrates Lowell Farms’ inventory management program and standard operating procedures with the software’s compliance and quality features to facilitate compliance with State and local requirements. MAX ERP features include a compliance software solution that offers lot and batch control, recall management, document control and quality analysis. Additionally, Lowell Farms utilizes standard operating procedure building tools to facilitate the implementation and maintenance of compliant operations and tracks all required licensing maintenance criteria.
 
City of Los Angeles – Compliance Procedures
 
Following submission of a pre-application request and once compliance with the business premises location is completed, including all zoning requirements and sensitive use restrictions, the DCR will request and review attestations from primary personnel and owner(s) associated with the application. Following such review, the DCR will issue a determination of eligibility/ineligibility for further processing. A determination of eligibility is based on, among other things, an initial inspection and environmental clearance. Following a determination of eligibility, the DCR reviews the application for completeness, including the status of state licenses and verification of local compliance under way with the state agencies. Following temporary approval, applicants may apply for an annual license.
 
Continued compliance includes ongoing, unannounced inspections, investigations and audits conducted by the employees or agents of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health or the following City departments: the DCR, the Department of Building and Safety, the Department of City Planning, the Police Department, the Fire Department and the Office of Finance. Inspections may include an examination of employee practice; cannabis safety; proper storage; equipment/utensils; facility; plumbing fixtures; sign/license requirements; record keeping; compliance and enforcement; and requirements for manufacturing.
 
Lowell Farms has developed a robust compliance program designed to ensure operational and regulatory requirements continue to be satisfied, and has retained outside counsel to monitor its compliance with U.S. State and local law on an ongoing basis. Lowell Farms will continue to work closely with its legal counsel to develop and improve its internal compliance program and will defer to their legal opinions and risk mitigation guidance regarding California’s complex regulatory framework. The internal compliance program requires continued monitoring by managers and executives of Lowell Farms to ensure all operations conform to and comply with required laws, regulations and legally compliant standard operating procedures.
  
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DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY
 
Lowell Farms presently leases its facilities through its subsidiaries. The following table sets forth information about our properties. We believe that these facilities are generally suitable to meet our needs.
 
Location
 
Square Feet
 
Purpose
 
Lease Expiration Dates
Salinas
 
15,000
 
Manufacturing
 
June 30,2029 7
Salinas
 
8,000
 
Administrative
 
December 31, 2021 8
Salinas
 
20,000
 
Distribution and flower packaging
 
December 31, 2021 9
Monterey County
 
225,000
 
Cultivation
 
December 31, 2034 10
Los Angeles
 
10,000
 
Distribution
 
November 30, 2024
Total square footage
 
278,000
 
 
 
 
_________________ 
7 Lowell Farms has two 4-year extension options.
8 Lowell Farms has one 4-year extension option.
9 Lowell Farms has four 2-year extension options.
10 Lowell Farms has five 5-year extension options.
11 Managed by Lowell Farms pursuant to the management services agreement with Hacienda entered into in connection with the Lowell Acquisition.
 
CORPORATE INFORMATION
 
General
 
We are incorporated under the laws of British Columbia, Canada. On April 26, 2019, we completed a reverse takeover transaction (the “Business Combination” or the “RTO”) with Indus Holding Company, a Delaware corporation. On February 25, 2021, we completed the Lowell Acquisition. Effective March 1, 2021, in connection with the Lowell Acquisition, we changed our name to Lowell Farms Inc.
 
The Company was incorporated under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) on October 27, 2005, under the name Zoolander Corporation and changed its name to “Mezzotin Minerals Inc.” on September 10, 2013. We sometimes refer to the Company in this Form S-1 as “Mezzotin” when referring to the period prior to the Business Combination.
 
Prior to the Business Combination, the Company engaged in the acquisition, exploration and development of properties prospective for rare earth metals in Zimbabwe. In October 2018, the Company sold all of its exploration property interests in Zimbabwe and had no commercial operations or operating revenues at the time of the Business Combination.
 
Indus Holding Company was formed as a Delaware corporation on January 2, 2015. Indus Holding Company owns all of our operating subsidiaries.
 
Corporate Structure
 
Set forth below is the organization chart of the Company, setting out all material subsidiaries of the Company and their jurisdiction of incorporation, formation or organization. Each of the subsidiaries of Indus Holding Company is wholly-owned by it. Indus is presently carrying on active business operations solely in California.
 
-40-
 
 
 
The primary purpose or main business of each entity is as follows:
 
Lowell Farms Inc. is the issuer of our shares traded on the CSE and OTCQX. Lowell Farms Inc. is a holding company and does not conduct material business activities.
 
Indus Holding Company is the owner of our principal brand intellectual property (other than the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes brands acquired in the Lowell Acquisition) and an intermediate holding company for our operating entities.
 
Cypress Manufacturing Company conducts the majority of our cannabis operations, including cultivation, extraction, manufacturing and distribution, and holds all manufacturing and distribution licenses. Licensed activities acquired by Indus LF LLC in the Lowell Acquisition are being transitioned to Cypress Manufacturing Company.
 
Cypress Holding Company owns the majority of our equipment and is a lessee for facility and equipment leases.
 
Wellness Innovation Group Incorporated provides sales, marketing, administrative and managerial services to our other operating entities.
 
Indus LF LLC is the owner of the brands, product portfolio and assets acquired in the Lowell Acquisition.
 
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The head office of the Company is located at 19 Quail Run Circle – Suite B, Salinas, California 93907 USA. The registered office of the Company is Suite 2200, HSBC Building, 885 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC V6C 3E8 Canada. Our website address is https://www.lowellfarms.direct.com/. No information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated into this Registration Statement on Form S-1.
 
The Business Combination
 
On March 29, 2019. the Company entered into a definitive agreement with Indus Holding Company and certain other parties pursuant to which the Company effected the Business Combination. The Business Combination resulted in a reverse take-over of the Company by the securityholders of Indus Holding Company.
 
In connection with the Business Combination:
 
Mezzotin created (i) the Subordinate Voting Shares as a new class of equity securities and all outstanding common shares of Mezzotin were reclassified as Subordinate Voting Shares at a ratio of one Subordinate Voting Share for every 485.3 common shares and (ii) a new class of non-participating securities of Mezzotin designated super voting shares (“Super Voting Shares”) (collectively, the “Share Terms Amendment”).
 
Indus Holding Company was recapitalized by an amendment and restatement of its certificate of incorporation. Pursuant to the recapitalization, the voting Class A Common Shares (“Indus Class A Common Shares ”) and the non-voting Class B Common Shares (“Indus Class B Common Shares ”) of Indus Holding Company were created, and all outstanding shares of stock of Indus Holding Company were reclassified as Indus Class B Common Shares on a one-for-one basis. Indus Class B Common Shares are redeemable at the option of the holder for Subordinate Voting Shares on a one-for-one basis or, at Indus Holding Company’s option, for cash.
 
Simultaneously, the Company subscribed for and became the sole holder of the Indus Class A Common Shares. The purchase price for the Class A Common Shares was paid from the proceeds of a subscription receipts financing conducted in connection with the Business Combination.
 
The Convertible Debenture Offering
 
Effective April 16, 2020, in connection with the completion of a private placement of convertible debentures and warrants (the “Convertible Debenture Offering”), the certificate of incorporation of the Company (at that time named Indus Holdings, Inc.) was amended to create a class of non-voting Class C Common Shares. The debentures issued in the Convertible Debenture Offering are convertible into Indus Class C Common Shares. The Indus Class C Common Shares are redeemable at the option of the holder for Subordinate Voting Shares on a one-for-one basis. See “General Development of the Business – Financing Transactions” below for further details as to the Convertible Debenture Offering.
 
Name Change
 
Effective March 1, 2021, in connection with the Lowell Acquisition, the Company changed its name from Indus Holdings, Inc. to Lowell Farms Inc. On March 5, 2021, the Subordinate Voting Shares began trading on the Canadian Securities Exchange (the “CSE”) under the ticker symbol LOWL and the warrants (the “December 2020 Warrants”) issued by the Company (then named Indus Holdings, Inc.) in its December 2020 Unit offering described herein (the “December 2020 Unit Offering”) began trading on the CSE under the ticker symbol LOWL.WT. Also on March 5, 2021, the Subordinate Voting Shares began trading on the OTCQX under the ticker symbol LOWLF.
 
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LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
There are no legal proceedings material to the Company to which the Company or a subsidiary thereof is a party or of which any of their respective property is the subject matter, nor or any such proceedings known to the Company to be contemplated, and there have been no such legal proceedings during the Company’s most recently completed financial year.
 
MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
 
Market Information. The Subordinate Voting Shares are listed for trading on the CSE under the symbol “LOWL” and the warrants are listed on the CSE under the symbol “LOWL.WT.” The Subordinate Voting Shares commenced trading on the CSE effective April 30, 2019. Our shares are also traded over-the-counter in the United States on the OTCQX under the symbol “LOWLF.” Any over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down, or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.
 
The following table sets forth trading information for the Subordinate Voting Shares for the periods indicated, as quoted on the CSE.
 
 
Period
 
 
High Trading Price
C ($)
 
 
Low Trading Price
C($)
 
  Q2 2021 thru 5/17/21  
 $2.00 
 $1.30 
  Q1 2021 
 $2.73 
 $1.31 
  Q4 2020 
 $2.33 
 $1.17 
  Q3 2020 
 $1.99 
 $0.64 
  Q2 2020 
 $1.06 
 $0.295 
  Q1 2020 
 $1.15 
 $0.24 
  Q4 2019 
 $3.84 
 $0.51 
  Q3 2019 
 $9.15 
 $2.80 
  4/30/19-6/30/19 
 $15.95 
 $5.80 
 
The following table sets forth trading information for the Subordinate Voting Shares for the periods indicated, as quoted on the OTCQX.
 
 
Period
 
 
High Trading Price
US ($)
 
 
Low Trading Price
US($)
 
  Q2 2021 thru 5/17/21 
 $1.56 
 $1.08 
  Q1 2021 
 $2.15 
 $1.01 
  Q4 2020 
 $1.78 
 $0.95 
  Q3 2020 
 $1.53 
 $0.50 
  Q2 2020 starting 5/7/20 
 $0.79 
 $0.29 
 
Shareholders. We had approximately 154 shareholders of record as of May 10, 2021. This does not include shares held in the name of a broker, bank or other nominees (typically referred to as being held in “street name”).
 
Dividends.  The Company has not paid dividends and currently intends to reinvest any future earnings to finance the development and growth of its business. As a result, the Company does not intend to pay dividends on the Subordinate Voting Shares in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay distributions will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend on the financial condition, business environment, operating results, capital requirements, any contractual restrictions on the payment of distributions and any other factors that the Board deems relevant. Apart from the requirement to comply with applicable corporate law in connection with the declaration of any dividend, Lowell Farms is restricted from declaring any dividends or other distributions pursuant to the terms and conditions of the purchase agreement relating to the Convertible Debenture Offering.
 
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Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
 
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2020, with respect to all of our compensation plans under which equity securities are authorized for issuance.
 
Plan Category
 
Number of securities
to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights(1)
 
 
Weighted average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 
 
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance
 
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders 
  6,260,750(2)
 $0.97 
  1,851,066 
Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders 
  - 
  - 
  - 
                                   
(1) In connection with the RTO, the Company assumed the 2016 stock incentive plan of Indus Holding Company and outstanding option awards thereunder became exercisable for Subordinate Voting Shares. Of the Company’s 6,260,750 outstanding awards at December 31, 2020, 922,000 were issued under the legacy 2016 stock incentive plan and the remainder were issued under the Company’s 2019 stock incentive plan. No further awards will be made pursuant to the 2016 stock incentive plan.
 
(2) Excludes 450,000 restricted stock units granted at $0.33.
 
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
This management’s discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) of the financial condition and results of operations of the Company is for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and March 31, 2020, and the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. It is supplemental to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Company’s consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and March 31, 2020, and the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019. All amounts in this MD&A are expressed in thousands of United States dollars (“$” or “US$”), unless otherwise indicated.
 
This MD&A contains certain “forward-looking statements” as defined under applicable United States securities laws. Please refer to the discussion of forward-looking statements and information set out under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information”, in this Form S-1. As a result of many factors, the Company’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements and information.
 
OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY
 
We are a California-based cannabis company with vertically integrated operations including large scale cultivation, extraction, processing, manufacturing, branding, packaging and wholesale distribution to retail dispensaries. We manufacture and distribute proprietary and third-party brands throughout the State of California, the largest cannabis market in the world. We also provide manufacturing, extraction and distribution services to third-party cannabis and cannabis branding companies. We operate a 225,000 square foot greenhouse cultivation facility in Monterey County, a 15,000 square foot manufacturing and laboratory facility in Salinas, California, a separate 20,000 square foot distribution facility in Salinas, California and a warehouse depot and distribution vehicles in Los Angeles, California.
 
Our product offerings includes flower, vape pens, oils, extracts, chocolate edibles, mints, gummies, beverages, tinctures and pre-rolls. We sell our products under owned and third-party brands. Brands we own include the following Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes (premium packaged flower, pre-roll, concentrates, and vape products); Cypress Reserve (a premium flower brand); Flavor Extracts (crumble and terp sugar products): Kaizen (premium brand cannabis concentrates): House Weed (a value driven flower and concentrates offering delivering a flavorful and potent experience); Moon (a range of high-potency, high-quality and high-value edibles); Altai (hand-crafted and award-winning edibles); Humble Flower (a premium brand offering cannabis-infused topical creams, balms and oils); Original Pot Company (baked edibles); CannaStripe (gummy edibles); and Acme Elixirs (high quality, lab-tested vaporizing pens). We also exclusively manufacture and distribute third party brands in California and provide third party extraction processing and distribution services and bulk extraction concentrates and flower to licensed manufacturers and distributors.  
 
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We conduct cannabis cultivation operations located in Monterey County, California. We currently operate a cultivation facility which includes four greenhouses totaling approximately 225,000 square feet sited on 10 acres located on Zabala Road. Farming cannabis at this scale enables us to curate specialized strains and maintain greater control over the quantity and quality of cannabis available for our products, preserving the consistency of our flower and cannabis feedstocks for our extraction laboratory and product manufacturing operations. We maintain a strict quality control process which facilitates a predictable output yield of pesticide-free products.
 
Our manufacturing facility is located in Salinas, California and houses our edible product operations and extraction and distillation operations. The edible product operations utilize internally produced cannabis oil, which can also be supplied from multiple external sources. Our manufacturing operations produce a wide variety of cannabis-infused products in our 15,000 square foot manufacturing facility in Salinas. Our products include chocolate confections, beverages, baked goods, hard and soft non-chocolate confections, and topical lotions and balms. Lowell Farms utilizes modern commercial production equipment and employs food grade manufacturing protocols, including industry-leading standard operating procedures designed so that its products meet stringent quality standards. We have implemented updated compliance, packaging and labeling standards to meet the requirements of the California Medical and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act with the advent of adult use legalization in California.
  
We also operate an automated flower packaging line and a pre-roll assembly line for making finished goods in those respective categories with feedstock grown by the Lowell Farms cultivation operations acquired in the Lowell Acquisition.
 
Business Combination
 
On November 13, 2018, Indus Holding Company (a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company) and Mezzotin entered into a business combination agreement whereby the parties agreed to combine their respective businesses, which would result in the reverse takeover of Mezzotin by the security holders of the Company. Mezzotin was originally incorporated under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) on October 27, 2005 as Zoolander Corporation. On September 10, 2013, Zoolander changed its name to Mezzotin Minerals Inc. On April 26, 2019 the reverse takeover transaction concluded. In connection with the agreement, Mezzotin changed its name from Mezzotin Minerals Inc. to Indus Holdings, Inc. Effective at the close of markets on April 29, 2019, the common shares of the Company (“Existing Mezzotin Shares”) were delisted from the NEX board of the TSX Venture Exchange, and the subordinate voting shares of the Company commenced trading on the Canadian Stock Exchange effective at market open on April 30, 2019, under the new symbol “INDS”.
 
Indus Holding Company was formed in 2014. The Company became the parent of Indus Holding Company in connection with the reverse takeover transaction.
 
Recent Developments
 
Terminated Pending Acquisition
 
On May 14, 2019, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the assets of W The Brand (“W Vapes”), a manufacturer and distributor in Nevada and Oregon of cannabis concentrates, cartridges and disposable pens, in a cash and stock transaction. Under the terms of the agreement, the purchase consideration to W Vapes shareholders consisted of $10 million in cash and $10 million in Subordinate Voting Shares (based on a deemed value of CDN$15.65 per share). In November 2019, the definitive agreement was amended whereby the Company advanced $2 million in non-recourse funds to the seller in exchange for release of $10 million of cash held in escrow related to the acquisition and in December 2019, the Company purchased the Las Vegas, Nevada facility for $4.1 million.
 
On July 17, 2020, the Company announced the termination of the definitive agreement with W Vapes and is no longer obligated to acquire the assets of W Vapes. The termination of the agreement coincided with an asset acquisition announcement between W Vapes and Planet 13 Holdings Inc., a vertically integrated provider of cannabis and cannabis-infused products in the State of Nevada (“Planet 13”). Additionally, the Company sold the Las Vegas facility to certain affiliates of Planet 13 for a cash payment of approximately $500, and an additional cash payment of approximately $2.8 million upon regulatory approval of the W Vapes and Planet 13 transaction, which was received in January 2021, and in the third quarter the Company finalized a note payable of $843, to the owners of W Vapes, payable coinciding with the receipt of the $2.8 million payment from the facility sale, which was paid in January 2021. As a result, the Company has reflected a $4.4 million loss in its consolidated financial statements.
 
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Acquisition
 
On February 25, 2021, we acquired the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes trademark brands, product portfolio and production assets from Hacienda and its subsidiaries. The acquisition is referred to in this Form S-1 as the “Lowell Acquisition.” The Lowell Acquisition expanded our product offerings by adding a highly regarded, mature line of premium branded cannabis pre-rolls, including infused pre-rolls, to our product portfolio under the Lowell Herb Co. and Lowell Smokes brands. The Lowell Acquisition also expanded our offerings of premium packaged flower, concentrates, and vape products. Upon the completion of the acquisition of certain regulatory assets in the Lowell Acquisition, we expect to acquire from Hacienda certain non-hydrocarbon extraction assets used for the production of oils, water hashish, bubble hashish and rosin. The acquisition was valued at approximately $39 million, comprised of $4.1 million in cash and the issuance of 22,643,678 Subordinate Voting Shares.
 
Loss of Foreign Private Issuer Status
 
As of January 1, 2021, the Company ceased to meet the definition of a “foreign private issuer” set out in Rule 405 of the  Securities Act. As of that date, the aggregate number of Super Voting Shares and Subordinate Voting Shares, held of record, directly or indirectly, by U.S. residents exceeded 50% of the aggregate number of Super Voting Shares and Subordinate Voting Shares issued and outstanding. As a result of the loss of foreign private issuer status and the filing of our Form 10 that became effective on May 8, 2021, we are subject to SEC disclosure rules and other rules and regulations ‎applicable to domestic issuers. These obligations require ‎significant financial and management resources. We are also subject to liability under the Securities Act ‎and the Exchange Act. Liability under these acts can lead to monetary fines, limitations on future ‎financings and, if imposed, may impede our ability to finance our business‎.
 
Reconciliations of Non-GAAP Financial and Performance Measures
 
The Company has provided certain supplemental non-GAAP financial measures in this MD&A. Where the Company has provided such non-GAAP financial measures, we have also provided a reconciliation below to the most comparable GAAP financial measure, see “Reconciliations of Non-IFRS Financial and Performance Measures” in this MD&A. These supplemental non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered superior to, as a substitute for or as an alternative to, and should only be considered in conjunction with, the GAAP financial measures presented herein.
 
In this MD&A, reference is made to adjusted EBITDA and working capital which are not measures of financial performance under GAAP. The Company calculates each as follows:
 
EBITDA is net income (loss), excluding the effects of income taxes (recovery); net interest expense; depreciation and amortization; and adjusted EBITDA also includes non-cash fair value adjustments on investments; unrealized foreign currency gains/losses; share-based compensation expense; and other transactional and special expenses, such as acquisition costs and expenses related to the markup of acquired finished goods inventory, which are inconsistent in amount and frequency and are not what we consider as typical of our continuing operations. Management believes this measure provides useful information as it is a commonly used measure in the capital markets and as it is a close proxy for repeatable cash generated by operations. We use adjusted EBITDA internally to understand, manage, make operating decisions related to cash flow generated from operations and evaluate our business. In addition, we use adjusted EBITDA to help plan and forecast future periods.
 
Working capital is current assets less current liabilities. Management believes the calculation of working capital provides additional information to investors about the Company’s liquidity. We use working capital internally to understand, manage, make operating decisions related to cash flow required to fund operational activity and evaluate our business cash flow needs. In addition, we use working capital to help plan and forecast future periods.
 
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These measures are not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.
 
The tables below reconcile Net Loss to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated.
 
Periods Ended March 31
 
Three Months
 
(in thousands)
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
Net income/(loss) attributable to Lowell Farms, Inc.
 $(6,719)
 $(7,874)
Interest expense
  831 
  850 
Provision for income taxes
  63 
  25 
Depreciation in cost of goods sold
  584 
  514 
Depreciation and amortization in operating expenses
  324 
  363 
EBITDA 
  (4,917)
  (6,122)
Investment and currency (gains)/ losses
  (106)
  (85)
Share-based compensation
  289 
  1,612 
Net effect of cost of goods on mark-up of acquired finished goods inventory
  167 
  - 
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
 $(4,569)
 $(4,594)
_______________
(1) Non-GAAP measure
 
Year Ended December 31
 
 Twelve Months
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
Net loss attributable to the Company (GAAP)
 $(21,910)
 $(49,934)
Interest expense
  3,331 
  2,152 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
  224 
  205 
Depreciation in cost of goods sold
  2,830 
  2,921 
Depreciation and amortization in operating expenses
  1,082 
  993 
Investment and currency losses
  (168)
  2,091 
Share-based compensation
  2,200 
  3,385 
Transaction and other special charges
  4,201 
  2,341 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)(1)
 $(8,210)
 $(35,846)
_______________
(1) Non-GAAP measure
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Quarter Ended March 31, 2021 Compared to Quarter Ended March 31, 2020
 
Revenue
 
We derive our revenue from sales of extracts, distillates, branded and packaged cannabis flower, concentrates and edible products to retail dispensaries in the state of California. In addition, we distribute proprietary and third-party brands throughout the state of California. The Company recognizes revenue upon delivery of goods to customers since at this time performance obligations are satisfied.
 
The Company classifies its revenues into three major categories: Owned, Agency and Distributed brands.
 
Owned brands are the proprietary brands of the Company.
 
 
Agency brands are third-party brands that the Company manufactures and/or sells utilizing our in-house sales team and distributes on behalf of the third-party.
 
               
Distributed brands are brands in which the Company provides distribution services to retail dispensaries. Distributed brands also include third-party sourced bulk product sales.
 
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Revenue by Category
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
  2021 v 2020 
(in thousands)
 
 
2021
 
 
 
2020
 
 
% Change
 
Owned
 $9,667 
 $5,207 
  86%
Agency
  1,230 
  2,709 
  -55%
Distributed
  129 
  1,526 
  -91%
Net revenue
 $11,026 
 $9,442 
  17%
 
In the quarter ended March 31, 2021:
 
Revenue increases compared to the same quarter in the prior year were driven by expanded cultivation capacity, resulting in flower and pre-roll brand sales increasing approximately 339%, which included over $900 in acquired Lowell brand sales, and the expansion of owned brand product offerings resulting in concentrates brand and edible brand sales increasing 11% and 19%, respectively. Customer onboarding and targeted marketing initiatives also favorably impacted owned brand sales.
 
Revenues in the quarter ended March 31, 2021 were adversely impacted by a strategic decision to focus only on agency and distributed brands that realize a higher per order sales level. As a result, the number of agency and distributed brands carried by the Company for the quarter ended March 31, 2021 declined by approximately 81%, compared to the same quarter in the prior year, and no new agency or distributed brands were onboarded in the quarter ended March 31, 2021.
 
Lowell expects to continue its focus on profitable sales growth in 2021 primarily through increased cultivation yields as a result of completing greenhouse renovations in 2020, including installation of environmental monitoring equipment designed to significantly reduce plant stress should the Company encounter severe temperature and atmospheric conditions as occurred at the end of the summer in 2020. Flower capacity in 2021 is expected to increase to over 40,000 pounds harvested, more than twice the harvest in 2020. The increased output will also increase internally sourced materials for distillation and concentrate products. Revenues are also expected to increase, although at a lesser pace, through improved penetration of edible products and selective new product introductions including pre-rolls, vapes and gummies. Our focus on agency and distributed brand sales will continue to be on those brands that only realize a higher per order sales level that will enable profitable growth. As a result, we expect agency and distributed brand sales to continue to decline from 2020 levels.
 
Cost of Sales, Gross Profit and Gross Margin
 
Cost of goods sold consist of direct and indirect costs of production and distribution, and includes amounts paid for direct labor, raw materials, packaging, operating supplies, and allocated overhead, which includes allocations of right of use asset depreciation, insurance, managerial salaries, utilities, and other expenses, such as employee training and product testing. The Company manufactures products for certain brands that do not have the capability, licensing or capacity to manufacture their own products. The fees earned for these activities absorbs fixed overhead in manufacturing. Our focus in 2021 is on flower, pre-rolls and concentrates from our expanded cultivation operations, and on increased vertical integration utilizing greater internally sourced biomass for edible and vape products. We are focusing on executing smaller, more frequent production runs to lower inventory working capital, optimize efficiencies and expedite product getting to the market faster, while continuing to decrease third party manufacturing activities.
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
Net revenue
 $11,026 
 $9,442 
Cost of goods sold
 $12,503 
 $11,171 
Gross profit (loss)
 $(1,477)
 $(1,729)
Gross margin
  (13.4)%
  (18.3)%
 
 
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Gross margin was (13.4)% and (18.3)% in the quarters ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The improvement between periods in gross profit and gross margin is primarily due to efficiencies from the $4.5 million, or 86% increase in owned brand revenue, reflecting increased cultivation output of flower and biomass which more than doubled in the current quarter compared to the same quarter in the prior year, on a similar cost base. Additionally, the $2.9 million, or 68% reduction in revenue in the current quarter compared to the same quarter in the prior year, from lower margin agency and distributed brands had an unfavorable impact on gross profit of approximately $0.3 million in the current quarter, while having a favorable impact on gross margin in the current quarter.
 
In the quarter ended March 31, 2021, as a result of the change in brand product mix, cost of goods sold increased 12% compared to the 17% increase in revenue resulting in the gross margin improvement over the same period last year. However, the Company continued to be adversely impacted from the plant stress resulting fron the extreme temperatures experienced in the third quarter of 2020. As a result, cultivation yields did not return to levels realized prior to the stress event. The Company has purchased and developed new genetics and is beginning to see significantly improved yields in the second quarter of 2021. The Company anticipates significantly improved gross margin in the second and third quarters of 2021 as a result of the yield improvement from the new plant genetics
 
Total Operating Expenses
 
Total operating expenses consist primarily of costs incurred at our corporate offices; personnel costs; selling, marketing, and other professional service costs including legal and accounting; and licensing costs. Sales and marketing expenses consist of selling costs to support our customer relationships, including investments in marketing and brand activities and corporate infrastructure required to support our ongoing business. We expect selling costs as a percentage of revenue to decrease as our business continues to grow, due to efficiencies associated with scaling the business, and reduced focus on non-core brands. We expect to incur periodic acquisition and transaction costs related to expansion efforts and to continue to invest where appropriate in the general and administrative function to support the increasing complexity of the cannabis business.
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
Total operating expenses
 $4,225 
 $5,380 
 
Total operating expenses decreased $1.2 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, compared to the same quarter in the prior year. Stock based compensation expense for the quarter ended March 31, 2021 decreased compared to the same quarter in the prior year by $1.3 million as restricted stock unit grants associated with the reverse takeover fully vested at the end of the first quarter in 2020. Operating expenses declined as a percentage of sales from 57% in the first quarter of 2020 to 38% in the first quarter of 2021. While operating expenses are expected to increase as owned brand marketing and infrastructure expenditures are incurred in support of revenue increases, operating expenses as a percentage of sales are expected to continue to decline.
 
Net Loss
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
Net loss
 $(6,719)
 $(7,874)
Net loss per share:
    
    
Basic and Diluted
 $(0.13)
 $(0.24)
Shares used in per share calculation:
    
    
Basic and Diluted
  53,592 
  32,988 
 
Net loss declined $1.2 million, or 15%, for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, compared to the same quarter in the prior year, as a result of the factors noted above.
 
-49-
 
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
Our primary need for liquidity is to fund the working capital requirements of our business, capital expenditures, general corporate purposes, and to a lesser extent debt service. Our primary source of liquidity is funds generated by financing activities. Our ability to fund our operations, to make planned capital expenditures, to make scheduled debt payments and to repay or refinance indebtedness depends on our future operating performance and cash flows, and ability to obtain equity or debt financing, which are subject to prevailing economic conditions, as well as financial, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Cash generated from ongoing operations in 2020 were not sufficient to fund operations and, in particular, to fund the Company’s cultivation capital expenditures in the short-term, and growth initiatives in the long-term. The Company raised additional funds from a $16.1 million convertible debt financing which was initially funded in April 2020 and finalized in May 2020 and a $25.0 million equity financing in December 2020.
 
 As of March 31, 2021, the Company had $13.6 million of cash and cash equivalents and $22.4 million of working capital, compared to $25.8 million of cash and cash equivalents and $30.9 million of working capital as of December 31, 2020.
 
The Company is focused on improving its balance sheet by improving accounts receivable collections, right-sizing inventories and increasing gross profits. We have taken a number of steps to improve our cash position and to continue to fund operations and capital expenditures including:
 
               
Accelerated cultivation facility renovations which are expected to result in an increase in flower and trim output by over two times in 2021, compared to the prior year,
 
               
Installation of new automated environmental and irrigation equipment design to improve yields and optimize greenhouse environmental conditions,
 
Developed new cultivation genetics focused on increasing yields and potency,
 
Scaled back our investment in and support for non-core brands,
 
               
Focus marketing and brand development activities on significantly growing the Lowell brands acquired in the first quarter, and
 
              As a result of the Lowell brand acquisition, restructured our organization and identified operating, selling and administrative expense cost efficiencies.
 
The Company realized margin improvement in the first quarter of 2021, compared to the same quarter in the prior year, as greenhouse renovations were substantially completed, low profit agency and distributed brands were eliminated and operational efficiencies improved. As noted above, the Company anticipates significant improvement in gross margin for the balance of the year, due in large part to yield improvements in cultivation.
 
 Cash Flows
 
The following table presents the Company's net cash inflows and outflows from the condensed interim consolidated financial statements of the Company for the quarters ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
Change
 
(in thousands)
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
 
$
 
 
%
 
Net cash used in operating activities
 $(9,271)
 $(2,351)
 $(6,920)
  (294)%
Net cash used in investing activities
  (2,962)
  (1,284)
  (1,678)
  (131)%
Net cash provided (used) by financing activities
  54 
  2,879 
  (2,825)
  98%
Change in cash and cash equivalents
 $(12,179)
 $(756)
 $(11,424)
  1,511%
 
-50-
 
 
Cash used in operating activities
 
Net cash used in operating activities was $9.3 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $6.9 million or 294%, compared to the quarter ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by inventory increasing $0.7 million in the current quarter compared to a reduction of $1.4 million in the first quarter of 2020, and accounts receivable increasing by $2.5 million in the quarter ended March 31, 2021 due to higher sales levels, compared to a decrease of $0.9 million in the first quarter of 2020.
 
Cash used in investing activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities was $3.0 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $1.7 million compared to the same quarter of the prior year. Cash used in the Lowell brand acquisition was $4.6 million, which was off-set by net proceeds received associated with the termination of the W Vapes acquisition agreement. See Note 2 in notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements. Capital expenditures of $0.4 million in the current quarter, principally associated with greenhouse renovations, compared to $1.2 million in capital expenditures in the same period last year. Greenhouse renovations were substantially completed at the end of the third quarter in 2020. Remaining construction at the cultivation facility consists primarily of the construction of a head house for processing of flower and biomass, which is expected to be completed around the end of the third quarter in 2021.
 
Cash provided by financing activities
 
Net cash provided by financing activities was $0.1 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, compared to $2.9 million in the same quarter of the prior year, primarily due to proceeds from note payable financing in the prior year.
 
We expect that our cash on hand and cash flows from operations will be adequate to meet our operational needs for the next 12 months. The Company intends to seek additional external financing to fund new business initiatives, including the construction or expansion of additional cultivation sites.
 
Working Capital and Cash on Hand
 
The following table presents the Company's cash on hand and working capital position as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change
 
(in thousands)
 
March 2021
 
 
December 2020
 
 
$
 
 
%
 
Working capital(1)
 $22,364 
 $30,883 
 $(8,515)
  (28)%
Cash on hand
 $13,572 
 $25,751 
 $(12,180)
  (47)%
 
(1) Non-GAAP measure - see Non-GAAP Financial Measures in this MD&A.
 
At December 31, 2020, we had $25.8 million cash and $30.9 million of working capital, compared to $13.6 million of cash and $22.4 million of working capital at March 31, 2021. The decrease in cash was primarily due to funding operational losses and cash used in the Lowell brand asset acquisition.
 
The Company’s working capital is expected to be significantly impacted by the growth in operations, increased cultivation output, and continuing margin improvement.
 
CHANGES IN OR ADOPTION OF ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
 
This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2020. Also see Note 1 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 for changes of adoption of accounting pronouncements.
 
-51-
 
 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
 
The preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, and revenue and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revision and future periods if the review affects both current and future periods.
 
Significant judgments, estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the consolidated financial statements are described below.
 
Estimated Useful Lives and Depreciation of Property and Equipment – Depreciation of property and equipment is dependent upon estimates of useful lives which are determined through the exercise of judgment. The assessment of any impairment of these assets is dependent upon estimates of recoverable amounts that take into account factors such as economic and market conditions and the useful lives of assets.
 
Estimated Useful Lives and Amortization of Intangible Assets – Amortization of intangible assets is recorded on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, which do not exceed the contractual period, if any.
  
Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recognized at the acquisition date fair values as defined by accounting standards related to fair value measurements.
  
Fair Value of Investments in Private Entities – The Company uses discounted cash flow model to determine fair value of its investment in private entities. In estimating fair value, management is required to make certain assumptions and estimates such as discount rate, long term growth rate and, estimated free cash flows.
 
Share-Based Compensation – The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and warrants granted. In estimating fair value, management is required to make certain assumptions and estimates such as the expected life of units, volatility of the Company’s future share price, risk free rates, future dividend yields and estimated forfeitures at the initial grant date. Changes in assumptions used to estimate fair value could result in materially different results.
 
Deferred Tax Asset and Valuation Allowance – Deferred tax assets, including those arising from tax loss carry-forwards, requires management to assess the likelihood that the Company will generate sufficient taxable earnings in future periods in order to utilize recognized deferred tax assets. Assumptions about the generation of future taxable profits depend on management’s estimates of future cash flows. In addition, future changes in tax laws could limit the ability of the Company to obtain tax deductions in future periods. To the extent that future cash flows and taxable income differ significantly from estimates, the ability of the Company to realize the net deferred tax assets recorded at the reporting date could be impacted.
 
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND FINANCIAL RISK
 
The Company's financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities; current portion of long-term debt; and long-term debt. The carrying values of these financial instruments approximate their fair values.
 
-52-
 
 
Financial instruments recorded at fair value are classified using a fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of the inputs used to make the measurements. The hierarchy is summarized as follows:
 
Level 1 — Quoted prices (unadjusted) that are in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
 
Level 2 — Inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (prices) for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or indirectly (derived from prices) for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions
 
Level 3 — Inputs for assets or liabilities that are not based upon observable market data
 
The Company has exposure to the following risks from its use of financial instruments and other risks to which it is exposed and assess the impact and likelihood of those risks. These risks include: market, credit, liquidity, asset forfeiture, banking and interest rate risk.
 
Credit Risk
 
Credit risk is the risk of a potential loss to the Company if a customer or third party to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations. The maximum credit exposure at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 is the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. All cash and cash equivalents are placed with U.S. and Canadian financial institutions.
 
The Company provides credit to its customers in the normal course of business and has established credit evaluation and monitoring processes to mitigate credit risk but has limited risk as a significant portion of its sales are transacted with cash.
 
 Liquidity Risk
 
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will not be able to meet its financial obligations associated with financial liabilities. The Company manages liquidity risk through the management of its capital structure. The Company’s approach to managing liquidity is to ensure that it will have sufficient liquidity to settle obligations and liabilities when due.
 
In addition to the commitments outlined in Note 15, the Company has the following contractual obligations at March 31, 2021:
 
 (in thousands)
 
Maturity: < 1 Year
 
 
Maturity: > 1 Year
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable and Other accrued liabilities
 $10,551 
 $- 
 
Market Risk
 
Strategic and operational risks arise if the Company fails to carry out business operations and/or to raise sufficient equity and/or debt financing. These strategic opportunities or threats arise from a range of factors that might include changing economic and political circumstances and regulatory approvals and competitor actions. The risk is mitigated by consideration of other potential development opportunities and challenges which management may undertake.
 
-53-
 
 
Interest Rate Risk
 
Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value or the future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate as a result of changes in market interest rates. The Company’s interest-bearing loans and borrowings are all at fixed interest rates; therefore, the Company is not exposed to interest rate risk on these financial liabilities. The Company considers interest rate risk to be immaterial.
 
Price Risk
 
Price risk is the risk of variability in fair value due to movements in equity or market prices. Cannabis is a developing market and subject to volatile and possibly declining prices year over year as a result of increased competition. Because adult-use cannabis is a newly commercialized and regulated industry in the State of California, historical price data is either not available or not predictive of future price levels. There may be downward pressure on the average price for cannabis. There can be no assurance that price volatility will be favorable or in line with expectations. Pricing will depend on general factors including, but not limited to, the number of licenses granted by the local and state governments, the supply such licensees are able to generate, activity by unlicensed producers and sellers and consumer demand for cannabis. An adverse change in cannabis prices, or in investors’ beliefs about trends in those prices, could have a material adverse outcome on the Company and its valuation.
 
Asset Forfeiture Risk
 
Because the cannabis industry remains illegal under U.S. federal law, any property owned by participants in the cannabis industry which are either used in the course of conducting such business, or are the proceeds of such business, could be subject to seizure by law enforcement and subsequent civil asset forfeiture. Even if the owner of the property were never charged with a crime, the property in question could still be seized and subject to an administrative proceeding by which, with minimal due process, it could be subject to forfeiture.
 
 Banking Risk
 
Notwithstanding that a majority of states have legalized medical marijuana, there has been no change in U.S. federal banking laws related to the deposit and holding of funds derived from activities related to the marijuana industry. Given that U.S. federal law provides that the production and possession of cannabis is illegal, there are arguments that financial institutions cannot accept for deposit funds from businesses involved with the marijuana industry and legislative efforts to provide greater certainty to financial institutions have not been successful. Consequently, businesses involved in the marijuana industry often have difficulty accessing the U.S. banking system and traditional financing sources. The inability to open bank accounts with certain institutions may make it difficult to operate the business of the Company, its subsidiaries and investee companies, and leaves their cash holdings vulnerable.
 
-54-
 
 
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Quarter Ended March 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Operations
 
2021
 
 
2020
 
Net revenue
 $11,026 
 $9,442 
Gross loss
 $(1,477)
 $(1,729)
Operating loss
 $(5,702)
 $(7,109 
Loss before income taxes
 $(6,656 
 $(7,849 
Net loss
 $(6,719)
 $(7,874 
Net loss per share - basic and diluted
 $(0.13)
 $(0.24)
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted
 $53,592 
 $32,988 
 
Consolidated Financial Position
 
March 31,
2021
 
 
December 31,
2020
 
Cash
 $13,572 
 $25,751 
Current assets
 $37,111 
 $46,604 
Property, plant and equipment, net
 $49,456 
 $49,243 
Total assets
 $124,452 
 $97,416 
Current liabilities
 $14,747 
 $15,723 
Working capital
 $22,364 
 $30,883 
Long-term notes payable including current portion
 $666 
 $1,516 
Capital lease obligations including current portion
 $38,803 
 $38,834 
Total stockholders' equity
 $59,903 
 $31,156 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Not applicable.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
 
Revenue
 
We derive our revenue from sales of extracts, distillates, branded and packaged cannabis flower, concentrates and edible products to retail dispensaries in the state of California. In addition, we distribute proprietary and third-party brands throughout the state of California. The Company recognizes revenue upon delivery of goods to customers since at this time performance obligations are satisfied.
 
The Company classifies its revenues into three major categories: Owned, Agency and Distributed brands.
 
Owned are the proprietary brands of the Company.
 
Agency brands are third-party brands that the Company manufactures and/or sells utilizing our in-house sales team and distributes on behalf of the third-party.
 
Distributed brands are brands in which the Company provides distribution services to retail dispensaries. Distributed brands also include third-party sourced bulk product sales.
 
-55-
 
 
Revenue by Category
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
  2020 v 2019 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
% Change
 
Owned
 $31,955 
 $15,366 
  108%
Agency
  7,778 
  13,470 
  -42%
Distributed
  2,885 
  8,209 
  -65%
Net revenue
 $42,618 
 $37,045 
  15%
 
In the year ended December 31, 2020:
 
Revenue increases compared to the prior year were driven by expanded cultivation capacity, resulting in flower brand sales increasing 167% over 2019 and expansion of owned brand product offerings resulting in concentrates brand sales increasing 154% over 2019 and edible brand sales increasing 103% over 2019. Customer onboarding and targeted marketing initiatives also favorably impacted owned brand sales.
 
Revenues in 2020 were adversely impacted by a strategic decision to focus on agency and distributed brands that realize a higher per order sales level. As a result, the number of agency brands carried by the Company in 2020 declined by approximately 60% and no new agency brands were onboarded, and, the number of distributed brands carried by the Company declined by approximately 85%, and only two new distributed brands were onboarded in 2020.
 
Lowell Farms expects to continue its focus on profitable sales growth in 2021 primarily through increased cultivation yields as a result of completing greenhouse renovations in 2020, including installation of environmental monitoring equipment designed to significantly reduce plant stress should the Company encounter severe temperature and atmospheric conditions as occurred at the end of the summer in 2020. Flower capacity in 2021 is expected to increase to over 40,000 pounds harvested, more than twice the harvest in 2020. The increased output will also increase internally sourced materials for distillation and concentrate products. Revenues are also expected to increase, although at a lesser pace, through improved penetration of edible products and selective new product introductions including pre-rolls, vapes and gummies. Our focus on agency and distributed brand sales will continue to be on those brands that realize a higher per order sales level that will enable profitable growth. As a result, we expect agency and distributed brand sales to decline from 2020 levels.
 
-56-
 
 
Cost of Sales, Gross Profit and Gross Margin
 
Cost of goods sold consist of direct and indirect costs of production and distribution, and includes amounts paid for direct labor, raw materials, packaging, operating supplies, and allocated overhead, which includes allocations of rent, insurance, managerial salaries, utilities, and other expenses, such as employee training and product testing. The Company manufactures products for certain brands that do not have the capability, licensing or capacity to manufacture their own products. The fees earned for these activities absorbs fixed overhead in manufacturing. Our focus in 2021 is on flower, pre-rolls and concentrates from our expanded cultivation operations, and on increased vertical integration utilizing greater internally sourced biomass for edible and vape products. We are focusing on executing smaller, more frequent production runs to lower inventory working capital, optimize efficiencies and expedite product getting to the market faster, while continuing to decrease third party manufacturing activities.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
Net revenue
 $42,618 
 $37,045 
Cost of goods sold
 $40,413 
 $47,790 
Gross profit (loss)
 $2,205 
 $(10,745)
Gross margin
  5.2%
  -29.0%
 
Gross margin was 5.2% and (29.0)% in the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The improvement between periods in gross profit and gross margin is primarily due efficiencies from the $16.6 million, 108% increase in owned brand revenue, reflecting increased cultivation output of flower and biomass which more than doubled in 2020 over 2019 on a similar cost base. Additionally, the $11.0 million, or 51% reduction in revenue from lower margin agency and distributed brands had an unfavorable impact on gross profit of approximately $0.7 million while having a favorable year-to-year impact on gross margin.
 
In 2020, as a result of the change in brand product mix and cost efficiencies related to the increased yields in cultivation, the Company incurred approximately $2.9 million in additional cost of goods sold related to the $16.6 million increase in owned brand product sales when compared to 2019. Additionally, cost of goods sold in 2020 declined approximately $10.3 million from 2019 as a result of the $11.0 million reduction in agency and distributed brand product sales.
 
Total Operating Expenses
 
Total operating expenses consist primarily of costs incurred at our corporate offices; personnel costs; selling, marketing, and other professional service costs including legal and accounting; and licensing costs. Sales and marketing expenses consist of selling costs to support our customer relationships, including investments in marketing and brand activities and corporate infrastructure required to support our ongoing business. We expect selling costs as a percentage of revenue to decrease as our business continues to grow, due to efficiencies associated with scaling the business, and reduced focus on non-core brands. We expect to incur periodic acquisition and transaction costs related to expansion efforts and to continue to invest where appropriate in the general and administrative function to support the increasing complexity of the cannabis business.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
Total operating expenses
 $18.013 
 $34,836 
 
Total operating expenses decreased $16,823 for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year. The decrease is primarily attributable to the reduction in general and administrative salaries and expenses through cost cutting initiatives and fully burdening distribution operations in cost of goods sold. Stock based compensation expense in 2020 decreased $1,185 as restricted stock unit grants associated with the reverse takeover fully vested at the end of the first quarter in 2020. In addition, operating expenses in 2019 include $2,251 of transaction costs related to the reverse takeover and acquisition-related costs. Operating expenses declined as a percentage of sales from 100% in 2019 to 48% in 2020. While operating expenses are expected to increase as owned brand marketing and infrastructure expenditures are incurred in support of revenue increases, operating expenses as a percentage of sales are expected to continue to decline.
 
-57-
 
 
Total other income (expense), net
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
Total other income/(expense)
 $(5,878)
 $(4,148)
 
Other expense in 2020 included a loss of $4,367 on the termination of the agreement to purchase the Nevada and Oregon operations of W Vapes and the sale of the Las Vegas facility while 2019 included $2,250 in unrealized losses from investments. Interest expense increased $1,179 in 2020 due to bridge financing and convertible debentures entered into in the current year.
 
Net Loss
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
Net loss
 $(21,910)
 $(49,934)
Net loss per share:
    
    
Basic and Diluted
 $(0.65)
 $(1.59)
Shares used in per share calculation:
    
    
Basic and Diluted
  33,940 
  31,379 
 
Net loss reduced $37,920, or 75%, in 2020 as a result of the factors noted above.
 
Summary of Quarterly Results
 
The table below presents selected financial information for each of the eight most recently completed quarters
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
First Quarter
 
 
Second Quarter
 
 
Third Quarter
 
 
Fourth Quarter
 
2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 $9,442 
 $9,894 
 $14,131 
 $9,151 
Gross profit (loss)
 $(1,729)
 $(1,263)
 $4,979 
 $218 
Operating income (loss)
 $(7,109)
 $(4,788)
 $772 
 $(4,683)
Income(loss) before income taxes
 $(7,849)
 $(8,732)
 $(1,052)
 $(4,053)
Net income (loss)
 $(7,874)
 $(8,757)
 $(1,171)
 $(4,108)
Loss per share – basic and diluted
 $(0.24)
 $(0.26)
 $(0.04)
 $(0.11)
2019
    
    
    
    
Revenue
 $6,434 
 $9,689 
 $10,119 
 $10,803 
Gross profit (loss)
 $2,487 
 $(1,021)
 $(7,524)
 $(4,687)
Operating loss
 $(1,500)
 $(8,923)
 $(19,139)
 $(16,019)
Income before income taxes
 $(2,676)
 $(8,176)
 $(21,343)
 $(17,534)
Net loss
 $(2,676)
 $(8,679)
 $(20,884)
 $(17,965)
Loss per share - basic and diluted
    
 $(0.27)
 $(0.65)
 $(0.55)
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
Our primary need for liquidity is to fund the working capital requirements of our business, capital expenditures, general corporate purposes, and to a lesser extent debt service. Our primary source of liquidity is funds generated by financing activities. Our ability to fund our operations, to make planned capital expenditures, to make scheduled debt payments and to repay or refinance indebtedness depends on our future operating performance and cash flows, and ability to obtain equity or debt financing, which are subject to prevailing economic conditions, as well as financial, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Cash generated from ongoing operations in 2020 were not sufficient to fund operations and, in particular, to fund the Company’s cultivation capital expenditures in the short-term, and growth initiatives in the long-term. The Company raised additional funds from a $16.1 million convertible debt financing which was initially funded in April 2020 and finalized in May 2020 and a $25.0 million equity financing in December 2020.
 
-58-
 
 
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $25.8 million of cash and cash equivalents, and $30.9 million of working capital, compared to $1.3 million of cash and cash equivalents and $9.3 million of working capital as of December 31, 2019.
 
The Company is focused on improving its balance sheet by improving accounts receivable collections, right-sizing inventories and increasing gross profits. We have taken a number of steps to improve our cash position and to continue to fund operations and capital expenditures including:
 
Entered into a $16.1 million senior secured convertible debenture and warrant purchase agreement in April 2020. The debentures bear interest at 5.5% per annum and will mature in October 2023. See Note 14 in the consolidated financial statements.
 
Accelerated cultivation facility renovations which are expected to result in an increase in flower and trim output by over two times in 2021, and over 4 times compared to 2019.
 
Completed a 23 million subordinate voting share offering in December 2020 which generated $25.0 million in net proceeds.
 
Terminated the technology agreement with our e-commerce partner to reduce distribution expenses.
 
Scaled back our investment in and support for non-core brands.
 
Reduced accounts receivable in excess of $2.3million in 2020.
 
Restructured our organization and identified operating, selling and administrative expense cost reductions, which includes component cost reductions, reorganization of our sales and commission structure and realignment or our discount programs.
 
The Company realized considerable margin improvement in 2020 as greenhouse renovations were substantially completed, low profit agency and distributed brands were eliminated and operational efficiencies improved.
 
Private Placement
 
In connection with the RTO, on April 2, 2019 , we completed a private placement offering (the “Private Placement”), in which 3,436 subscription receipts (“Subscription Receipts”) of a special purpose finance vehicle (“Finance Co”) were issued at a price of CDN$15.65 per Subscription Receipt for gross proceeds of approximately US$40 million. The gross proceeds of the Private Placement, less certain associated expenses, were deposited into escrow (the “Escrowed Proceeds”) pending satisfaction of certain specified release conditions (the “Escrow Release Conditions”), all of which were satisfied immediately prior to the completion of the RTO. As a result, the Escrowed Proceeds were released to FinanceCo prior to the closing of the RTO, and each Subscription Receipt was automatically converted, for no additional consideration, into one common share of FinanceCo. Following satisfaction of the Escrow Release Conditions, in connection with the RTO, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding FinanceCo shares pursuant to a three-cornered amalgamation, and the former holders thereof (including the former holders of FinanceCo Shares acquired upon conversion of the Subscription Receipts) each received one Subordinate Voting Share in exchange for each FinanceCo share held.
 
-59-
 
 
Cash Flows
 
The following table presents the Company’s net cash inflows and outflows from the condensed interim consolidated financial statements of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
Change
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
$
 
 
%
 
Net cash used in operating activities
 $(7,752)
 $(39,323)
 $31,571 
  80%
Net cash used in investing activities
  (5,607)
  (10,061)
  4,454 
  44%
Net cash provided (used) by financing activities
  37,765 
  40,418 
  (2,653)
  -7%
Change in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
 $24,406 
 $(8,966)
 $33,372 
  372%
 
Cash used in operating activities
 
Net cash used in operating activities was $7,752 for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $31.6 million or 80%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The reduction was primarily driven by the $28.0 million reduction in net loss. Inventory decreased $0.5 million in the current year compared to a reduction of $1.6 million in 2019, reflecting a continuing focus on reducing inventory days on hand for manufactured product. Accounts receivable decreased by $1.0 million in 2020 compared to an increase of $6.2 million in 2019 reflecting significant collections focus in the current year.
 
Cash used in investing activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities was $5,607 for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $4.5 million, compared to the prior year. Capital expenditures of $6.9 million, principally associated with greenhouse renovations, were comparable to $10.0 million in capital expenditures in the same period last year. Capital expenditures in 2019 included a $4.1 million purchase of a building in Nevada which was sold in 2020, and the Company received $0.5 million of proceeds in the current year and an additional $2.8 million in January 2021. Greenhouse renovations were substantially completed at the end of the third quarter in 2020. Remaining construction at the cultivation facility consists primarily of the construction of a head house for drying and processing of flower and biomass, which is expected to be completed around the end of the first quarter in 2021.
 
Cash provided by financing activities
 
Net cash provided by financing activities was $37,765 for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $40,418 in the prior year. The inflow consisted primarily of $15.2 million in net proceeds from the convertible debenture financing in the second quarter and $25.0 million in net proceeds from the subordinate voting share offering in the fourth quarter. The inflow in 2019 was the result of the $40 million Private Placement financing.
 
We expect that our cash on hand and cash flows from operations, will be adequate to meet our capital requirements and operational needs for the next 12 months.
 
-60-
 
 
Working Capital and Cash on Hand
 
The following table presents the Company’s cash on hand and working capital position as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
Change
 
(in thousands)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
$
 
 
%
 
Working capital(1)
 $30,883 
 $9,330 
 $21,553 
  231%
Cash on hand
 $25,751 
 $1,344 
 $24,407 
  1816%
(1) Non-GAAP measure - see Non-GAAP Financial Measures in this MD&A.
    
    
    
    
 
At December 31, 2020, we had $25,751 of cash and $30,883 of working capital, compared with $1,344 of cash and $9,330 of working capital at December 31, 2019. The increase in cash was primarily due to the convertible debenture financing and subordinate voting share offering, offset by capital expenditures and increases in inventories and biological assets.
 
The Company’s working capital is expected to be significantly impacted by the growth in operations, increased cultivation output, and continuing margin improvement.
 
CHANGES IN OR ADOPTION OF ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
 
This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The Company implemented the following additional policies beginning January 1, 2019:
 
In May 2020, the SEC adopted the final rule under SEC release No. 33-10786, Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses, amending Rule 1-02(w)(2) which includes amendments to certain of its rules and forms related to the disclosure of financial information regarding acquired or disposed businesses. Among other changes, the amendments impact SEC rules relating to (1) the definition of “significant” subsidiaries, (2) requirements to provide financial statements for “significant” acquisitions, and (3) revisions to the formulation and usage of pro forma financial information. The final rule becomes effective on January 1, 2021; however, voluntary early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted the provisions of the final rule in 2020. The guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
 
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires that a lessee recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from operating leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use (ROU) asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU 2018-11, Leases Topic 842 Target improvements, which provides an additional (and optional) transition method whereby the new lease standard is applied at the adoption date and recognized as an adjustment to retained earnings. In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842) Codification Improvements, which further clarifies the determination of fair value of the underlying asset by lessors that are not manufacturers or dealers and modifies transition disclosure requirements for changes in accounting principles and other technical updates. The Company adopted the standard effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective adoption method which allowed it to initially apply the new standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. In connection with the adoption of the new lease pronouncement, the Company recorded a charge to accumulated deficit of $847.
 
-61-
 
 
Effects of Adoption
 
The Company has elected to use the practical expedient package that allows us to not reassess: (1) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, (2) lease classification for any expired or existing leases and (3) initial direct costs for any expired or existing leases. The Company additionally elected to use the practical expedients that allow lessees to: (1) treat the lease and non-lease components of leases as a single lease component for all of its leases and (2) not recognize on its balance sheet leases with terms less than twelve months.
 
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. The Company leases certain manufacturing facilities, warehouses, offices, machinery and equipment, vehicles and office equipment under operating leases. Under the new standard, operating leases result in the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. ROU assets represent our right to use the leased asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments. Under the new standard, operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, upon adoption of the new standard, we used our estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available, including lease term, as of January 1, 2019 to determine the present value of lease payments. Operating lease ROU assets are adjusted for any lease payments made prior to January 1, 2019 and any lease incentives. Certain of our leases may include options to extend or terminate the original lease term. The Company generally concluded that it is not reasonably certain to exercise these options due primarily to the length of the original lease term and its assessment that economic incentives are not reasonably certain to be realized. Operating lease expense under the new standard is recognized on a straight-line basis over them lease term. Current finance lease obligations consist primarily of cultivation, manufacturing and distribution facility leases.
 
Refer to the Summary of Effects of Lease Accounting Standard Update Adopted in First Quarter of 2019 below for further details.
 
Leases accounted for under the new standard have initial remaining lease terms of one to seven years. Certain of our lease agreements include rental payments adjusted periodically for inflation. The Company’s lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. 
 
Summary of Effects of Lease Accounting Standard Update Adopted in First Quarter of 2019
 
The cumulative effects of the changes made to our consolidated balance sheet as of the beginning of the first quarter of 2019 as a result of the adoption of the accounting standard update on leases were as follows:
 
(Amounts Expressed in United States Dollars Unless Otherwise Stated)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effects of adoption of lease accounting
standard update related to:
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, $US)
 
As filed
December 31, 2018
 
 
Recognition of
Operating Leases
 
 
Total Effects
of Adoption
 
 
With effect of
lease accounting
standard update
January 1, 2019
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net
 $4,063 
 $23,594 
 $23,594 
 $27,656 
 
    
    
    
    
Liabilities
    
    
    
    
Current portion of long-term debt
  147 
  1,492 
  1,492 
  1,639 
Long-term debt, net
  389 
  22,948 
  22,948 
  23,337 
 
    
    
    
    
Equity
    
    
    
    
Accumulated Deficit
  (20,201)
  (847)
  (847)
  (21,047)
 
    
    
    
    
Total
 $23,728 
 $- 
 $- 
 $23,728 
 
-62-
 
 
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, ”Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance: ASU 2018-19 ”Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses”, ASU 2019-04 “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments”, ASU 2019-05 “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses”, ASU 2019-11 “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses” (collectively, Topic 326),ASU 2020-02 Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326) and Leases (Topic 842) and ASU 2020-03 Codification Improvements to Financial Instruments. Topic 326 requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. This guidance is effective for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company believes that the most notable impact of this ASU will relate to its processes around the assessment of the adequacy of its allowance for doubtful accounts on trade accounts receivable and the recognition of credit losses. We continue to monitor the economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, however based on current market conditions, the adoption of the ASU did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
 
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808), Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This guidance amended Topic 808 and Topic 606 to clarify that transactions in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for under Topic 606 when the counterparty is a customer for a distinct good or service (i.e., unit of account). The amendments preclude an entity from presenting consideration from a transaction in a collaborative arrangement as revenue from contracts with customers if the counterparty is not a customer for that transaction. This guidance is effective for the year ended December 31, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
Consolidated Operations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
 $42,618 
 $37,045 
 $17,199 
 $15,468 
 $4,676 
Gross profit/(loss)
 $2,205 
 $(10,745)
 $4,063 
 $1,763 
 $692 
Operating loss
 $(15,808)
 $(45,581)
 $(7,330)
 $(5,976)
 $(3,358)
Loss before income taxes
 $(21,686)
 $(49,729)
 $(8,614)
 $(7,258)
 $(3,439)
Net loss
 $(21,910)
 $(49,934)
 $(8,711)
 $(7,280)
 $(3,439)
Net loss per share - basic and diluted
 $(0.65)
 $(1.59)
    
    
    
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted
 $33,940 
 $31,379 
    
    
    
Consolidated Financial Position
    
    
    
    
    
Cash
 $25,751 
 $1,344 
 $10,310 
 $2,229 
 $2,807 
Current assets
 $46,605 
 $21,381 
 $31,253 
 $8,809 
 $4,949 
Property, plant and equipment, net
 $49,243 
 $42,972 
 $4,063 
 $1,649 
 $960 
Total assets
 $97,416 
 $68,534 
 $37,465 
 $12,171 
 $6,133 
Current liabilities
 $15,723 
 $12,051 
 $4,436 
 $7,753 
 $1,126 
Working capital
 $30,883 
 $9,330 
 $26,817 
 $1,056 
 $3,823 
Long-term notes payable including current portion
 $15,217 
 $506 
 $536 
 $12,276 
 $4,524 
Capital lease obligations including current portion
 $45,393 
 $35,836 
 $- 
 $- 
 $- 
Total stockholders’ equity
 $31,156 
 $23,686 
 $32,640 
 $(5,211)
 $541 
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Not applicable.
 
-63-
 
 
DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
Below are the names of and certain information regarding our executive officers and directors:
 
Name
 
Age
 
Position
George Allen
 
46
 
Chairman
Mark Ainsworth
 
46
 
Chief Executive Officer and Director
Stephanie Harkness
 
77
 
Director
William Anton
 
79
 
Director
Kevin McGrath
 
47
 
Director
Brian Shure
 
44
 
Chief Financial Officer and Director
Bruce Gates
 
60
 
Director
Jenny Montenegro
 
38
 
Chief Operating Officer
Kelly McMillin
 
57
 
Chief Compliance Officer
 
George Allen has served as the non-executive Chairman and a director of the Company since April 2020. Mr. Allen is the Founder of Geronimo Capital LLC, a cannabis-industry investment firm, and has been its Managing Member since April 2019. Mr. Allen was the President of Acreage Holdings, a cannabis multi-state operator, from August 2017 to April 2019. At the time of his departure from Acreage Holdings, it was the largest multi-state operator with the broadest footprint in the United States. Mr. Allen was the Chief Investment Officer of Cambridge Information Group, family investment office, from July 2015 to August 2017. Mr. Allen holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Yale University. From 2011 to 2014 Mr. Allen led an acquisition-driven restructuring of Blucora (NASDAQ: BCOR) into a leading provider of wealth management and tax software and prior to Blucora, Mr. Allen spent nine years at Warburg Pincus, managing investments in the communication, media and technology sectors, and Goldman Sachs in New York and Hong Kong, where he invested capital in distressed securities The Company believes that Mr. Allen’s extensive public company and executive-level experience and his expertise in strategy, mergers and acquisitions and corporate finance qualify him to serve as our Chairman.
 
Mark Ainsworth has served as Chief Executive Officer and as a director of the Company since April 2019. Mr. Ainsworth previously served as the Company’s Chief Operating Officer (November 2019 to April 2020) and Executive Vice President (April 2019 to April 2020) an